Many farmers build their business on cattle breeding, in particular, fatten bulls for meat. To get a good profit, you need to properly organize the whole process. The maintenance of animals, as well as their diet, is subject to certain requirements, which must be met. What is the correct fattening of bulls, read the article.
Recommendations when raising animals for fattening
There are certain rules. Their observance allows you to get good results when fattening bulls for meat at home:
- Veterinary check-up is a must before purchasing animals.
- Bull calves should have all vaccinations by age.
- They need to be trained to walk from birth, but this should be done at a time when there will be no dew on the grass.
- In hot weather, animals should be kept in the shade.
- In the corrals you needobserve sanitary standards: keep the floors clean, which, moreover, must always be dry.
- Get regular walking for the bulls, otherwise they will show aggression and grow sickly.
- Observe the temperature regime in the stall, 10 is considered optimal oC.
- When puberty sets in, walking should be stopped. This is due to the fact that during this period the animals are extremely aggressive. It is possible that they will cripple each other.
What kinds of food are animals fed?
The nutrient medium for fattening bulls should contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals for good growth and weight gain. Feeds are of the following types:
- Grain fodder - cereals should be given in a crushed form. Gobies at the age of two or three months are fed half a kilogram per day, six-month-olds - three and a half, one-year-olds - nine. If the bulls are fattened according to this scheme, they will weigh 500 kg each when they reach the age of one year. You can use a mixture of wheat and barley in equal proportions or cereals of the same type. This type of feeding is characterized by great efficiency and benefits.
- Beet pulp - using this technology, you can achieve a good weight gain: 800-1000 g per day. They use pulp from grain hay, straw, molasses, bran, legumes. They also give animals table s alt (30-50 g) and feed phosphate 60 g each.
- Silage - the use of this type of feed also gives a good increase in muscle mass: 950-1000 g per day. Depending on the type of silage and fattening stage(initial, secondary, final) and the rate of its use is different.
If the livestock breeder prefers the products available on the farm, then the bulls can be fed:
- Fresh food with high liquid content.
- Green mass with hay, grass in summer.
- Special additives, such as "Lactobifadol". This drug should be added to the food of animals throughout the entire period of life, until slaughter.
From the age of six months, you can feed the bulls with waste from your table, but start with a small amount. This method of fattening is profitable, it is used mainly by private farmers.
Use of feed additives
To feed animals for meat, along with food, they are given premixes specially designed to increase body weight at the rate of (per bull) 150 g. Such preparations include "Superpremix". The exact dose depends on the weight and age of the animal and is given in the instructions. If you regularly feed the bulls with such an additive, they gain weight faster due to the build-up of muscle mass, and the fattening period of the bulls is also reduced by 42 days. Important is the fact that much less feed is consumed, and this benefits the farmer.
Using grains in the diet
Eating legumes and grains to animals causes rapid weight gain. The meat of gobies grown on this feed, which contains a lot of fiber and vitamins, is very soft and tender.A cereal-based diet allows for intensive rearing of bulls.
Growing bulls, especially on large farms, is not complete without such additives. A good recommendation is "Restarter", which contains a lot of supplements from vitamins and minerals. When it is taken, immunity increases in bulls, the digestive system works better, and growth increases. Supplementation begins at four days of age. First it must be mixed with milk, later - with other food. The prebiotic is recommended as a food supplement throughout the growth period of bulls, until they are slaughtered for meat.
Technology for fattening bulls
To raise pets and get tasty dietary meat from them, you should follow the fattening technology. There are several ways to do this:
- Short - young animals are grown up to one and a half years with enhanced feeding. The live weight of the bull at the same time reaches 400 kg.
- Medium (intermediate) stage of fattening - the diet should be moderately plentiful for five to six months. Animals reach a weight of 400-450 kg.
- Long fattening period - lasts seven to eight months. The diet should be moderate, then the meat will be juicy and fatty. With this fattening of bulls, their weight will be 500 kg.
Composition of the diet
There are different feeding patterns. They are used for fattening gobies from birth. With their observance, the desired result can be achieved in a short period of time. This is especially important forobtaining beef, which is called "marble". Specialists have compiled various compositions of diets. If they are not suitable, each livestock breeder can develop something of his own from the ingredients available on the farm.
Feeding is summer and winter. For the warm period of the year, the basis of the diet is mainly green grass, and concentrates are also added. During the winter cold, of course, there is no fresh grass. But animals need something to eat. How to feed gobies in winter? To do this, use:
- Hay or straw.
- Dry grass harvested since summer. Only fodder varieties should be cut.
- Root crops.
- Various supplements, which must include vitamin complexes.
- Mixed feed.
Pets are given only quality products. If they are spoiled, the work of the digestive tract will be disrupted, poisoning may occur. The bulls will start to get sick, weaken, their fattening will not bring any results.
Daily feed allowance
Animals should saturate their body with food, but not pass it on. Therefore, there are approximate norms of products that one bull should eat per day:
- Hay - three to four kilograms.
- Root crops - in the amount of four kilograms. If the vegetables are too large, they are cut into pieces.
- Concentrates - two kilograms.
In the process of growth, the mass of animals will grow, so the daily ration will have to be adjusted upward in terms of the number of products.
How to feed properly?
Diet for bulls is selected individually, depending on the conditions of detention:
- First, the drinker is filled with concentrate liquid.
- When the animals drink, they are fed fresh, juicy food.
- Then fresh grass is added to the hay or straw.
In the process of fattening, the diet should not be completely changed, it can only be adjusted by gradually introducing new products in small quantities. In the pursuit of profit, fattening animals should not harm their he alth. Gobies should be fed at intervals of eight hours. To prevent obesity during fattening, you need to correctly calculate the rate of feed intake per day.
Feeding young animals
Animals should eat three times a day at exactly the right time. On a farm or in each household, a certain dietary pattern is used. Much attention is paid to the development of a diet for fattening bulls for meat. If everything is calculated correctly, each animal can gain 600 g of weight in just one day. Such results in increasing body weight are very good even when keeping calves at home.
From birth until the age of two months, babies need to be fed with milk and products made from it. But gradually a little high quality hay, wheat groats, and dried grass are added to the diet. With this menu, bulls will grow quickly, and their stomach will be developed.
When fattening bulls for meat at home, their diet should containa large amount of proteins. Therefore, when they are three months old, they need to be fed, among other things, crushed grain, chopped vegetables, hay in small quantities. This diet is maintained until the age of six months. The results will not be long in coming: muscle mass will increase rapidly.
From seven months to nine months of age, the diet is enriched with grass if it is summer, or hay, but in large quantities if it is winter. For three months before slaughter, animals need to be given more food, but gradually increase their amount. How many gobies grow for meat so that it is lean and tender? For slaughter, the optimal age of calves is considered to be 1.3-1.5 years, although it happens earlier if there are any reasons for this.
How does castration affect meat, its quantity and quality?
This procedure primarily subdues the bulls when they reach puberty. As a result, the number of injuries inflicted on each other is reduced. You should be aware that neutered individuals have an increased appetite, but at the same time muscle building is slower. Therefore, when deciding to have an operation, you need to understand that animals will need more food to gain weight. It should also be borne in mind that due to the poor development of muscle mass, obesity occurs. You cannot get lean meat from such animals.
But this problem can be partially solved if the castration is carried out when the animals are one year old from the moment of birth. Fat in meat will be contained twicemore than uncastrated bulls, but it will be tender and juicy, its taste will not suffer. In addition, the development of the body of castrated individuals is more proportional, the skeleton becomes lighter. If a decision is made to castrate, this should be done in the period until puberty has come, not earlier than the age of six months of the bulls. This procedure is carried out in the spring, before going out to pasture for walking.
Cost of bulls in Russia
When breeding animals for meat, farmers are interested in the question of how much a bull costs. The average cost of a calf in our country is three to seven thousand rubles. But the price can be much higher, in other cases it is 60 thousand rubles. This is due to many factors. The difference in price, first of all, depends on the breed of the animal. Calves with a breeding certificate, that is, thoroughbred, are more expensive. The price is influenced by the age of the calves. But you should not focus only on this indicator, since bulls born at the same time can be different in size. For this reason, the cost is most often determined by weight, sellers sell gobies as meat.
Types of meat breeds
Meat breeds of gobies, of course, have common features. But each species has distinctive features, thanks to which the farmer can choose one or another variety that is more adapted to specific conditions of keeping and nutrition. Based on this, farmers have formed a list of popular meat breeds of gobies. Some of them are shown below.
Scientists from England have been working on its development since the 16th century. For crossing they took cows of the area and Dutch bulls. The result was excellent: the body of the animals has a rectangular, barrel-shaped shape with pronounced hips. The muscles are well developed, the chest is deep. An adult goby can weigh 1200-1300 kg. Net meat output is 70%.
Calves are born within 35 kg, differ in daily weight gain up to 1200-1700 g. it is evenly distributed in the meat, so it is considered "marble". The downside is the high demands on feed and increased susceptibility to infections. Due to these qualities, the popularity of the breed has declined.
Bulls of this meat breed were born in France. They quickly gained popularity among farmers, thanks to which they became widespread throughout the world. These bulls are heavyweights, their body is large. An adult animal weighs 1200 kg, in some cases - 1500-1800. The meat has very little fat, its taste does not change with the age of the animal. Calves are born large, up to 45 kg each. Their growth and weight gain is very fast. Even during intensive fattening, fat does not accumulate in the meat, so this breed is not suitable for breeding for fattening in regions with a cold climate.
This breed was also bred in France. But in the past, gobies were considered not only meatbreed, they were also used as labor force. To date, 95% of the total number of bulls is grown only for meat. The body of the animals has a rectangular shape, the back and front parts are very well developed. Calves are born weighing 40 kg, by four months of life they reach 160, by eight - 280. Per day they give an increase of about 1100 g. The weight of an adult bull is 1300 kg. In our country, representatives of this breed are grown mainly in Tyumen and Belgorod farms. The impact of unusual climatic conditions on productivity was not reflected. Gobies quickly adapt to any conditions of detention, unpretentious to feed and care.
In the climate of our country, the most adapted breeds are:
- Aberdeen Angus.
- Kazakh white-headed.
An important factor in obtaining good weight gain is the conditions in which animals are kept. In a room where fresh air does not enter, gobies should not be kept. Cowsheds should be equipped with special air ducts. If the farmer wants to make a profit, he must provide the bulls with good conditions. And this means that they need to build a separate room that will protect them from heat, rain and frost. Animals of all ages need plenty of water and space. Therefore, they should have a large paddock, in which there are always drinkers. Particular attention is paid to the diet.
In addition, you need to keep inthe cleanliness of the stall in which the bulls spend a lot of time. It needs daily cleaning of the litter, which should be completely changed once or twice a month. It is important to clean the stall immediately after feeding the bulls to prevent the spread of odor and disease-causing microbes. The room needs regular treatment from insects, otherwise they will disturb the animals. The optimum temperature is 10 оС above zero.