Capital is money, a commodity, a productive form. The cycle starts with money. To expand production, you need to have funds, invest them in the business. Having found and invested the amount in the enterprise, a person thereby uses investment capital. The term refers to additional money used to acquire production assets, implement projects in order to provide more profit than before.
Where do legs grow from?
The enterprise receives investment capital from the owner's own funds and attracted foreign resources. The first is retained earnings with deductions for depreciation. The second involves some free funds that are issued by individuals, legal entities, the state. Such funds are the main object of operations involving securities.
All savings become investments if spent on the purchase of production elements. They arethe only source of investment capital. Funds arise when individuals receive income, corporations, when the government receives income, while the amount is greater than the costs of this entity.
Objects and incomes
Traditionally, own investment capital is used to expand enterprises much less often than borrowed capital, since the object rarely has sufficient free funds. The classic source of money raised is corporations. About 60% of the entire investment market is formed by such savings objects. This is especially true for a developed country. Many corporations have much higher needs than savings, so the business sector has traditionally been considered the ultimate borrower.
People have some income, part of which they traditionally try to keep. People are especially actively striving for this if there are incentive programs. Investing funds allows individuals to secure additional income. Such a sector forms up to a third of all savings within the country.
Power and what is outside of it
Investment capital is created to expand production capacity. It can be borrowed by turning to the power, but in general the state is considered a net borrower. The authorities are more likely to raise money themselves in order to cover the shortage in the budget.
Foreigners can both borrow money and act as investors, as they save and increase funds. In practice, for example,Western powers always have a negative balance of investments with Eastern and Southern powers, so Western countries are considered net creditors.
Analyzing the goals of investment capital, the conditions for obtaining the status of a participant in a particular project, several groups can be distinguished. Possible risky investment, direct investment, annuity and portfolio.
Venture capital is a risky investment. It is accompanied by the creation of shares, the activity of the enterprise in a new area, where the dangers are above average. Investments of this type are carried out in companies without mutual connection. The main idea is the fastest payback. An investor buys a portion of the shares or offers a loan to a needy enterprise, allowing the money to be converted into shares.
Direct format involves the contribution of finance to the authorized capital to ensure income. Portfolio investment is the creation of a portfolio through the purchase of securities, assets. A portfolio is a set of values that allows you to achieve your desired goal. You can make a portfolio of stocks or different types of values.
Effective or not?
Profitability and cost of investment capital are the main monetary parameters that are important for an investor. To evaluate a specific project, determine the coefficients indicating the degree of unprofitability (profitability). When calculating, you need to know how much money is invested in the enterprise. Usually indexes are expressed in percentage form. IndexCalculate by referring profits or losses to the total amount invested. Profit can be calculated in the form of percentages, totals through accounting, according to management accounts. You can take into account the indicators of net profit (losses). Investments include assets, equity, principal debt of the enterprise and other formats that can be described as a sum of money.
Nuances of calculation
To calculate how effective investment capital is, you should evaluate its effectiveness. To do this, calculate the total profit for the entire period of asset ownership, correlate it with the value of the investment. This indicator reflects the return for the time during which the investor has assets in possession. It reflects how the amount invested increased over the period under study.
To make it easier to compare investment capital for a person who invests money in different periods or for different periods, a form of annual recalculation has been invented. To assess the profitability, you need to correlate its value and the duration of holding the asset.
Investing is good
Currently, many ordinary people with some income are thinking about how the phenomenon of investment capital is applicable to them, whether they can act as investors. Many have heard about investment opportunities, but few can clearly articulate the purpose of such an activity. For a person who has funds, the main task is to preserve and increase his we alth, so that the amount now available will grow enough to be able touse to purchase an expensive item. If you create investment capital, you can thereby provide yourself with a financial cushion with which a person will feel safe at any time.
Our life is full of risks. To smooth out their unpleasant impact allows pre-formed investment capital. Most of our fellow citizens try to keep money at home for a rainy day. Some people prefer to keep their money in the bank. As experienced experts in this field say, the best option is to invest your resources in order to avoid depreciation. Money will work, and their owner will make a profit. The larger the investment capital of a person, the better the prospects for profit will be.
Building your portfolio
This investment format is the acquisition of various assets. The main goal of an investor is to generate income. The portfolio is formed by various assets. It may include securities, real estate, antiques. Ownership of shares, bonds usually does not include participation in management processes, and investing in this format is considered passive.
The task of the investment portfolio is to form assets that will provide maximum profitability with reduced risks and sufficient liquidity. By competently planning the placement of money, evaluating the income component in advance, adjusting the composition in time and getting rid of illiquid objects, you can guarantee yourselfstable financial position in the present and future.