Under the term "production technologies" there are different interpretations. Often this concept is associated with a heavy production process, industry. But in fact, technology is primarily a skill, skill, methods. If we translate the word "technos" from the Greek language, additional options for interpreting this concept will open up: art and logic. Therefore, production technology is a set of ways, techniques and methods for creating a product, product or processing it.
Generalized concept of technology
The scientific direction that studies production phenomena is called "technology". This discipline is a complex of knowledge about the processes of manufacturing, processing and processing of various materials, media, products. Technology research subjects canbe a lot, because it is possible to process and process not only material environments (wood, metal, mineral raw materials, minerals, vegetable raw materials and other materials), but also intangible resources, which include information, research and development, projects, shows, legislative processes, financial, social services, etc.
The objectives of technology include the identification of physical, chemical, mechanical, commercial and other patterns in the process of creating and transforming one product into another. To achieve this goal, it is essential to study the essence of production technology.
Production should reflect modern concepts, allow for forecasting, find appropriate directions and keep pace with the pace of world technological progress. In this sense, it is more correct to understand technology as the very operation of extraction, processing, delivery, savings, sales and other actions that together represent the production process.
Types of production
Speaking of technology, it is more correct to consider it in connection with a specific manufacturing industry. It can be construction, chemical industry, design and construction, collection and storage of information, metal rolling, money printing, political career, etc. The technology of the production process involves a gradual change in quality characteristics, processing of the environment, its shape, structure, material and consumer properties. If we consider the concept of "technology" in the context of the scope and functions of management,then it has a broader meaning, since it is supposed to carry out management activities in conjunction with techniques and methods for processing various environments.
All technologies can be considered production technologies, since any of them is designed to improve the quality of the original resource. Based on the specialization of the company, the priority of the production process is determined by the importance of technology: it can be main and auxiliary. Such a division is due to the order of development and licensing of activities.
Introduction of new production technologies occurs almost continuously due to the emergence of new scientific and technological achievements. To date, scientists identify several areas in the development of modern technologies:
- transition from static methods to dynamic production processes due to higher efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the latter;
- implementation of new projects providing waste-free production;
- passing through all technological cycles while observing the principles of environmental safety;
- increasing the role of scientific research in business.
Classification of products as outputs of production activities
The result of the use of new production technologies is to improve the quality of the final product (goods, services). An increase in consumer demand testifies to the regularity of the result obtained. Bypurpose finished products are divided into three categories:
All three varieties are independent units that interact with each other in various relationships and combinations. The production technologies by which goods are manufactured, services are provided, determine the physical nature and material essence of products. The difference between them in consumer demand is not perfect, as can be seen from the following example.
Let's consider two end results of production activities and the use of modern production technologies - a fountain pen and an opera aria. Each of these finished products consists of the same three components (material, energy and intellectual), but with different priorities.
Thus, some production technologies are used to create a fountain pen, while others are required to record an opera aria. In the process of manufacturing a fountain pen, plastic materials, metal, coloring ink are used, which confirms the material nature of the product, which is a priority. For the performance of an opera aria, the material component is not of paramount importance. The intellectual element is considered a priority here, since, first of all, the performance of this piece of music requires a suitable sound accompaniment, the external artistry of the singer, a beautiful voice, intonation, melody and other intangible components. You can call a singing aria a material productonly partly, because its performance requires special equipment, a building, a stage. At the same time, both for the manufacture of a pen and for the performance of an opera aria, the energy part plays a role, which involves the use of not only electricity, but also living human labor.
About modern technologies in industrial production
Over the last decades of the last century, many innovative solutions have appeared among technological processes that have a positive impact on the work of enterprises in almost all industrial sectors. Conventionally, all these innovations can be divided into two groups: some of them are intended for technical support, and others for software.
The main indicator of the use of new technologies can be called an increase in the level of automation and labor intensity of processes. The progress of manufacturing technologies does not stand still. One of the modern developments can safely be called electronically controlled machine tools equipped with machining centers. Such equipment performs industrial work while automating the main processes and functions (for example, supplying materials, distributing finished products, etc.).
CNC machines are a system consisting of a conventional machine tool and a computer. Electronic equipment monitors the sequence of operations performed. More modern and improved models are machines with feedback systems. Unlike conventional equipment, these machinesare able to determine the actual position of tools and parts, compare it with the programmed position and, in case of discrepancy, make the necessary adjustments.
When passing the production practice according to the technology, the trainee of the enterprise needs to master the basic principles of the system functioning and gain the skills to control the CNC machine. In the future, the operation of the equipment will not cause any difficulties, especially when it comes to systems with automatic selection and installation of tools, loading of raw parts and issuance of finished products.
Robotization of production in Russia
In modern developed countries, robots are successfully replacing people in the production process. While we are talking about performing monotonous, monotonous work or activities associated with increased risks and danger. To introduce the machine into the work of the enterprise, the robot is equipped with a special device (for example, to capture or lift parts) and a visual coordination system. Modern robotics has a lot of possibilities. The robot can be taught new movements that are necessary to perform a particular action. This was made possible by increasing the amount of computer memory.
Thanks to automated raw material supply systems in production, it is possible to reduce the time for transportation, saving and replenishing raw materials. Computerized systems are connected to radio-controlled vehicles, which automatically determine the right cargo and the place of its delivery. These production cells helpcombine multiple robots or their individual systems.
Today, production complexes in an enterprise are automated technologies that underlie the industry and are contained in various technical combinations to achieve higher results and increase productivity.
The second block is software that is widely used at the stage of design, planning and analysis of production activities. The most commonly used technologies are computer-aided design and workflow management. Such systems can be used during the development of any product. Among the methods that are used in computer-aided design technology, the leading ones are:
- computer graphics;
- computer simulation;
- automated production plan.
Computer graphics should be used to study the visual properties and characteristics of finished products. In turn, the simulation allows you to evaluate the engineering characteristics, the level of automated production readiness for the implementation of computer programs on CNC machines and machining centers. Without automated systems for planning and managing production, the full functioning of the information block necessary for regulating the workflow and monitoring the progress of production operations would be impossible.
The pledge of technological progress
Creating advancedproduction technologies and their widespread introduction in industrial and non-industrial production is the main condition for the development of the scientific and technical sphere of both individual manufacturing enterprises and the production sector of state activity. The progressive manufacturing capacity model enables the development of products that are more useful and in higher demand from consumers.
At the same time, the development of production technologies should be based on the applied principles of process control in a market economy. It can be considered successful only when it is able to ensure the competitiveness of the production system. This is a complex, multi-component factor, which is influenced by all types of production technologies. Companies in the industrial sector use production and facility management systems, but, in addition to them, the analysis of the impact of the external environment on the work process is of great importance. The level of technical equipment, the economic potential of the enterprise and the degree of educational and practical training of hired personnel are also taken into account. Employees are trained in production technologies at the internship stage.
Another factor that affects production and scientific and technological progress is innovation management. Being one of the elements of the management system, it ensures the progressiveness and progressive dynamics of the development of productiontechnologies. Practice proves that new projects do not bring success if the management model has flaws. Why? It's simple: production technologies and the labor of employees are not able to replace the talent and entrepreneurial energy of managers.
Thus, modern society is puzzled by the development of technology. Every enterprise, company, organization tries to master the modern production technologies already in use and increase them.
What are the production technologies
Given that today there are many production technologies in practice in enterprises, the primary task is to determine their type. To distinguish between technologies used in production, several typical features are taken into account.
Regardless of the variety, each of the technologies has developed and continues to develop in the conditions of accumulation of people's life experience. Examples are:
- historical sources;
- written manuscripts;
- magnetic media;
- drawings, photographs, diagrams, drawings;
- samples of equipment, etc.
Production technologies can be classified according to several basic parameters:
- by level of difficulty - there are simple and complex;
- by scope - scientific, industrial and educational;
- in terms of development dynamics - progressive, developing, established and obsolete,irrelevant;
- according to the need for resources - allocate capital-intensive, science-intensive, energy-intensive;
- by the level of description - divided into professional, know-how, axiomatic;
- according to the level of processing and processing of environments - low, medium and high level;
- as intended - creative and destructive.
Each of them has its own form of expression. Thus, production work technologies are being transformed into federal laws, enterprise regulations governing the review and selection of finished products, industry standards, patents, certificates and licenses, protection and quality control mechanisms.
The role of the Russian Academy of Technological Sciences
Since none of the phenomena in nature or society occurs by itself, special attention is paid to the study of patterns and conditions necessary for the flow of production processes. When carrying out research activities, problems of a socio-economic, technical, organizational, and environmental nature are identified. Their decision is mandatory to meet the demands of society.
The leading role in the selection and combination of technologies of different nature belongs to management. The success of the enterprise depends on the balance of management decisions. Fundamental and applied research in the field of advanced production technologies in our country is carried out by the Academy of Technological Sciences of the Russian Federation. This organization has a diversified structure, its ownexperimental base and is a self-governing unit with subordinate institutions, centers, departments.
The main task of the Academy is to determine the trends in the development of innovative technological projects and dual-use developments necessary for their use in the formation of the technological potential of the state. The budget scientific and technical organization carries out examinations of the latest developments, justifies their use in the production process and offers the Government of the Russian Federation working concepts for their integrated use in the public interest.
The main areas of work of the Academy of Technological Sciences of the Russian Federation can be called:
- conversion and dual-use technologies;
- developments to increase the productivity of oil and gas production, processing, storage and transportation of resources;
- creating projects for the heavy industry sector (metallurgy, mining, etc.);
- improvement of construction technologies.
This scientific and technical organization is a subsidiary of the International Academy of Technological Sciences, which organizes regular conferences, forums and exhibitions in various fields of activity. The main form of promoting scientific and technological progress in Russia is scientific and technical programs and projects of the regional branches of the Academy.
Legislative regulation of the technological sphere
In the field of science and technology, civilappointment, the main government body is the Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology of the Russian Federation. This central body conducts state policy in this area, manages the main processes and determines the primary tasks for the development of a particular direction. Through the use of effective scientific and production technologies, the Ministry solves the following tasks:
- Forms and implements a unified state scientific and technical policy.
- Defines priority areas for the development of science and technology, makes a list of technologies, the improvement of which needs federal support.
- Organizes the work of departments to solve intersectoral scientific and technical problems.
- Creates economic and organizational and legal conditions, motivating entrepreneurs to carry out innovative activities in the scientific and technical industry.
- Gives advice on how to use modern advances in the production process.
- Participates in the development of a plan for financing innovative projects, including budget support programs.
- Coordinates the activities of executive bodies using scientific and technical information.
- Promotes the regulation of international relations and cooperation to improve obsolete technologies.
- Develops and implements a strategy for the scientific and technical potential of the Russian Federation, contributes to its rational deployment in the regions.
- Guarantees social protection of employees of scientific organizations and workers in the field of scientific and technicalservice.
Using production technologies, companies of various forms of ownership have the right to send relevant documents, recommendations of regional executive authorities to the Ministry of Science in order to obtain state accreditation. The possibility of granting an official status to a scientific organization is considered by the Ministry, taking into account the significance and level of ongoing research, development, qualifications of employees, the implementation of successful projects in practice and the material and technical equipment of the company. In addition, in order to obtain state accreditation, the volume of scientific activity is important: it must be more than 70% of the total volume of work performed during the three years preceding the application.
If the Ministry of Science of the Russian Federation makes a positive decision, the organization is issued an accreditation certificate, which is valid for the next three years. After this period, the accreditation procedure must be repeated. The accreditation procedure is carried out on a fee basis.
In addition to the indicated federal bodies, the Innovation Union of the Russian Federation, the International Technology Incubator under the Government of the Russian Federation are developing the scientific and technical sphere in the regions. A similar role is played by the Academy of Management and Market and the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Support of Small Business.
Principles of effective technologies used
Now let's look at a few indicators by which we can draw a conclusion about the effectivenessproduction technologies. The functions of the systems are evaluated taking into account the following parameters:
- Specific consumption of raw materials and resources per unit of products ready for sale.
- Amounts of useful substances extracted from a unit of raw material.
- Quality and environmental friendliness of finished products (goods, services).
- The level of labor productivity when calculating the actual workload of employees.
- Labor intensity.
- The cost of equipping the production process and the cost of finished products.
- Opportunities for using zero-waste systems.
Taking into account the established goals, the industry specialization of the enterprise is determined and the priorities of primary and auxiliary production activities are substantiated. The technologies used by enterprises set the course for the development of a particular scientific and technical industry in the region.
However, it is possible to consider technology at a professional level only if you have a special theoretical base - this is a fundamental point in the preparation of managers. The role of management personnel is the ability to make the right decisions, strive for economically significant results and maintain the functioning of a complex multi-component system consisting of elements of an economic nature: resources, property, personnel, cash flows, scientific potential.