The doctrine of financial resources in our state was first introduced in 1928, when the development goals of the USSR for the period from 1928 to 1932 were determined.
At the moment, there is no single exact definition of this concept, which is due to the practical diversity of the concept. There is a huge amount of financial resources of commercial organizations and their composition, because different economists give the concept different definitions.
Financial resources are all funds that a company (organization) is obliged to use in its work in order to maintain financial stability.
Concept and characteristics
To understand what the financial resources of commercial organizations are, it is necessary to find the difference between the definitions of "financial resources" and "company capital". Capitalis part of financial resources in addition to equity (money, UK) and borrowed capital (loans, loans, etc.).
As a result of the existence of a huge list of financial resources, it can be noted that they differ in a wide range of parameters in relation to other outcome indicators. The most important of them:
- close connection of all components of financial resources. No element can satisfy all the possibilities of the company, therefore the company uses not only its own capital, but also attracts additional borrowed funds;
- interchangeability of all components of resources, which allows the enterprise (institution) to implement its plans;
- lack of regular income can replace a bank loan;
- financial impact. Financial resources are subject to various fluctuations such as inflation and devaluation. This fact suggests that such funds are almost always presented in cash, in kind, its equivalent, even if the company does not have cash, but has loans and receivables.
The importance of the company's financial resources cannot be reduced, as their availability and rational implementation ensure the highest degree of financial solvency, liquidity of the organization and its rapid development in the future.
In addition to the variety of sources of financial resources of commercial organizations, one can single out the criteria according to which typology is carried out.
Depending on the criteria of attractiveness, financial resources are divided:
- short period (less than 1 year);
- long-term (over 1 year);
- unlimited period.
The first two types are related to borrowed funds, such as a loan, and the third type is owned, such as authorized capital.
There are the following types of financial resources of commercial organizations, depending on the degree of availability:
- with unlimited access.
Non-profit resources include resources from non-profit companies. Limited resources have additional requirements to obtain and use them. Unlimited resources are loans, bank loans and interest on securities.
The main prerequisite for the emergence of various types of financial resources is the abundance of sources of their formation. To fully appreciate the options for this financial concept, it is necessary to understand how to obtain and shape these resources. Among the sources of financial resources of commercial organizations, the following types are distinguished:
- Own sources. These include all types of company capital (additional, reserve, etc.) and retained earnings. Current responsibilities can also be attributed to this source of funds.
- Raised funds. This source of formation of financial resources of commercial organizations may include incomefrom securities and interest on them, as well as shares, additional contributions from owners to endowment, for example, payments on shares.
- Borrowed funds. This source is the most diverse, since new sources are created every year to receive funds, and then return some of them in shares. Borrowed funds include:
- budget appropriations.
An entire program is being developed to form the financial resources of commercial organizations. It is aimed at strengthening the financial position of the company (institution) in the market and the distribution of reserves.
Formation of financial resources of commercial organizations will be presented in the form of stages:
- create required quantity;
- use of purchased amounts;
- increasing business profitability;
- developing mitigation measures;
- development of cash flow management;
- shaping the results and strengthening the company's position in the market.
1 stage. Creating the necessary amount of financial resources
In order to complete this stage of the program, it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of the work of the company in calculating the required amount of resources that could provide all the goals of the company. Goals can be to strengthen the market, compete for buyers, or expand the sectorsales.
It is necessary to comprehensively study the sources of funds with a possible assessment of the attractiveness of their use. In other words, you need to compile a list of all likely sources of funds and choose from them with more attractive conditions for the company.
As a result, at this stage, financiers determine the nominal amount of the financial resource and the source of its creation: own funds or borrowed capital.
2 stage. Development of the use of the acquired amounts of financial resources
Having determined the amount of financial resources, it is necessary to create goals for the use of the collected funds. Goals should fully or partially cover not only the needs of the company, but also implement social plans among employees. In addition, at this stage, the level of effectiveness of each goal is calculated after adding resources to it. As a result, the company may find funds that will be replenished, for example, from sales proceeds.
3 stage. Increasing business revenue
After studying and distributing cash flows, it is necessary to take measures that are aimed at increasing the level of the company's permanent income, and specifically the level of profitability and profitability.
Activity to increase income is associated with an increase in the financial risk of the company (institution). This is an accompanying addiction in the economy, so the next step will be the regulation of financial risk.
4 stage. Development of risk reduction measures
Risk is extremely difficult to assess given the growth of the company's profitability. But if before useidentified financial resources, the financiers will act in accordance with the forecast calculation of business results, then the financial risk will be minimized.
As a result, the main principle of the implementation of this stage of the program is high-quality study and early programming of the order of the organization.
5 stage. Develop measures to manage flows in an organization
This stage is a lever for limiting financial risk. It involves the synchronization of receipts and disposals of funds, which allows the company to manage financial dependence on contractors and partners.
Almost all economists claim that reducing the balance of unused business funds contributes to increased permanent income without increasing financial risk.
This approach creates a duality of money in the overall flow of the company's financial resources. On the one hand (cash), as before, meet the needs of the company, on the other hand, companies cannot allocate their funds for a certain amount.
6 stage. Formation of results and strengthening of the company's position in the market
This stage is to develop and use financial resources. Considering all the conditions, it can be concluded that the company will achieve positive results from the implementation of the program in order to strengthen the financial position of the company (institution) in the market.
It should be noted that the final stage, based on the conviction of strengthening the company's position in the market, isthe first step of the next program, which consists in the constant analysis and calculation of the firm's financial resources.
Basics of Management
The formation and use of financial resources of commercial organizations is closely related to the process of managing them.
Management consists in making various decisions regarding the receipt of funds used in the course of the company's activities and its continuous development.
The goal of a process is to maximize its value. This means that every decision made in the company is closely related to obtaining a constant profit that improves the performance of the company. The unit responsible for the process must fully control the level of the enterprise's debt, the timely fulfillment of the company's obligations, as well as the level and structure of assets for the financial year. This determines the effectiveness of the strategy adopted at the enterprise and the achievement of the set goals, that is, making a profit.
Management of financial resources plays a very important role at every stage of enterprise development and in almost all areas of management. To run a business, an enterprise must have both physical and financial resources. The latter include financial resources, including cash balances on current and term accounts at the company's cash desk, as well as short-term securities (checks, bills, treasury bills, etc.). Both material resources and financial resources are closely interconnected. The need for financial resources includesfinancing of current operations, as well as financing of investments aimed at creating material resources. This, in turn, contributes to the creation of finished products, which is a source of cash flow in the enterprise. The acquired funds increase the resources of the company and are used in the next cycle of its activity. For this to happen, the timing and intensity of these flows must be properly controlled.
The management process includes two stages:
- diagnosis stage concerns the study of certain areas of the financial economy using numerous methods of financial analysis. These studies are designed to identify the weaknesses and strengths of the company's financial position;
- the decision-making stage includes current and long-term decisions that affect the financial phenomena in the enterprise.
Finance management is a process consisting of a series of decisions aimed at obtaining funds, investing them in the company's resources and ensuring that its value is maximized. The increase in the value of the company is the result of a corresponding level of increase in the return on capital that the company has at its disposal. The advantage is maximizing the financial surplus, but at the same time maintaining the ability to repay obligations on time. This is an important element in the process of financial resource management, since the relationship between influence and cash outflow in the enterprise determines its further functioning.
Financial management of a company to ensure the use of financial resources of a commercial organization takes actions such as:
- analysis of the economic results of the company and the situation in its environment. This is the starting point in the decision-making process;
- planning the distribution of cash flows over time, analyzing inflows and outflows, to ensure that the liquidity of the company is maintained in the short and long term;
- planning activities aimed at reducing the risk of operations;
- assessing the need for financial resources needed to implement the planned investment, and trying to obtain these funds;
- planning the optimal funding structure to reduce costs and maximize revenue;
- allocation of received funds to the most effective and profitable projects;
- planning earnings per share and preparing proposals for its distribution. This is an important point to ensure proper cooperation between owners;
- monitoring and financial execution of the tasks undertaken in the company.
The problem of choosing the direction of the use of resources is relevant for many enterprises.
The main directions of using the financial resources of commercial organizations are as follows:
- payments to government agencies;
- investment in capital expenditures and investments;
- fund formation;
- social goals;
- distribution betweenowners;
- stimulating employees.
Thus, the financial resources of a commercial organization is the totality of absolutely all types of funds of the company, which are formed as a result of the economic activity of the company. Among the main sources are their own funds, attracted and borrowed. The main source is income in the form of proceeds from the implementation of activities.