Waste disposal is the storage and disposal of waste raw materials in special places or at special facilities. The latter include landfills, complexes, subsoil plots, structures, and so on. Their use must be authorized by the competent executive body. Some enterprises carry out disposal and neutralization of waste. This activity is subject to licensing.
Waste disposal is a rather specific activity. Storage of waste material can be long-term or short-term. In the latter case, we are talking about placement for a period of up to 11 months. This activity is called accumulation. If storage is carried out for a period exceeding the specified one, then they speak of the storage of waste material. Wastes that are not subject to subsequent disposal are buried. It is carried out in special storage facilities that prevent the penetration of harmful compounds into the environment.
The legislation establishes a mandatoryobtaining a license for waste disposal. This permit is issued for specific types of waste raw materials. The license, which was received before 2015-01-07, is valid until 2019-01-01. The list of used raw materials with which the enterprise plans to work is listed in the annex to the license. Disposal of waste not on the list is considered illegal. Waste material storage activities are subject to an environmental impact fee. An exception is provided for cases of disposal of harmless waste. The absence of a negative impact on nature should be confirmed by the results of monitoring the state of the environment.
Documents for license
There is a standard list of papers required to obtain a permit for waste disposal. This is:
- Constituent documentation.
- Title papers for the facility, equipment and waste material.
In addition, you must provide additional:
- Act confirming the commissioning of the landfill.
- Storage Project.
- A document confirming the nature of radiation monitoring and a certificate with a verification mark.
- Agreement with the relevant organization to eliminate the consequences of the accident.
- Radiation control program.
- Certificate of special training for a responsible employee of the enterprise.
- Minutes drawn up based on the results of public hearings held on the issue of the location of the objectneutralization.
- EIA section for storage area.
- Positive opinion provided by the State Ecological Expertise.
- Sanitary Protection Area Project.
- Conclusion of the sanitary and epidemiological station. It must be positive.
- Project for maximum allowable emissions at the waste disposal site.
- Permission to dump spent raw materials.
- Documents establishing waste generation standards and limits for waste disposal.
Requirements for objects
Disposal of production and consumption waste is an activity that is quite tightly controlled by the state. In this regard, the legislation fixes the requirements for the facilities where waste raw materials are stored. The main prescriptions are disclosed in article 12 of the Federal Law No. 89 and SanPiN 2.17.1322-03. The facilities where production and consumption waste will be placed should be determined on the basis of hydrological, geological and other special studies in accordance with the rules established by law. On the territories of the sites and within the boundaries of the impact of raw materials on the environment, the owners, persons in charge of the respective complexes, must monitor the state of nature. After the completion of the use of the facilities, these entities must conduct a control check and take measures to restore the disturbed areas.
Disposal of spent materials is not allowed:
- inwithin settlements, resorts, forests, places of treatment and rehabilitation of citizens, water protection zones, within the boundaries of water collection sites, underground facilities with water used for household needs and drinking;
- in places where minerals are located, mining operations, if there is a risk of contamination of these areas;
- contains useful items for recycling.
The legislation also prohibits the use of municipal solid waste for reclamation of quarries and lands. In the process of eliminating workings, enclosing and overburden rocks, materials for mining ferrous metals of 4 and 5 classes can be used.
This document provides for more requirements than the above Federal Law. Features of waste disposal, according to SanPiN, depend on their hazard class:
- 1 class – in containers, barrels, cisterns.
- 2 cl. – in plastic bags, polyethylene bags.
- 3 class – in textile, paper, cotton bags.
- 4 cl. - embankment.
A separate section of SanPiN is dedicated to the requirements directly to accommodation facilities. In part, they are duplicated by the provisions of the Federal Law No. 89. The waste disposal project is formed at the planning stage of the storage site. The area of the territory is established taking into account the possibility of its exploitation for 25 liters. The object must be selected outside the locality, a place of rest for citizens.
Storage of used raw materials can be carried out:
- Spoil heaps.
- In the pits.
- In the trenches.
- In containers.
- In tanks.
- On the cards.
- In the drive.
- On platforms.
Objects are entered into the register of waste disposal (GRRO). It is forbidden to store materials in places not specified in it.
Deadline for obtaining permission
It takes longer to issue a license to post materials than to transport and collect. If we talk about a situation where the interested person has all the necessary documents from the list above, then the total period for obtaining a permit will be about 5.5 months. Registration includes preparation of justification, coordination in three competent authorities and two checks. However, it should be noted that the issuance of a document in practice is carried out over a longer period. If the interested person does not have projects of SPZ and maximum allowable emissions, registration will be delayed for the time of obtaining conclusions on these documents. For example, according to the last act, it is issued within 5 months. With simultaneous design, you can meet about 6-7 months. However, in this case, additional specialists will have to be involved. Environmental impact assessment and public hearings will take at least 3 months. As a result, a year and a half seems to be the most realistic period. At the same time, the specialists involved in the design should have a clear schedule.
Draft Waste Disposal Regulations
To prevent negativethe impact on nature in the course of economic or other activities by citizens and legal entities, users of natural resources, the limits of permissible impact on the environment have been established. These include waste generation standards and limits on waste disposal (NOOLR). In case of exceeding them, the subjects of economic and other activities bear responsibility, enshrined in legislation. As a general rule, draft regulations are approved for up to 5 years. At the same time, enterprises confirm the invariability of the process and the raw materials used by enterprises. This is done through the preparation of a report. This document is submitted to the territorial divisions of Rosprirodnadzor. If the project was developed taking into account the established requirements, then it will contain standards that are as close as possible to the real state of affairs. Meanwhile, experts often make mistakes when using the calculation method. As a result, during the first year of the enterprise's activity under the project, excesses of the established standards are revealed.
Users of natural resources are well aware of what threatens them with the absence of standards. In the process of calculating the quarterly payment for the negative impact on nature, the amount will be significantly increased. This is due to the fact that in case of exceeding the limits, the legislation establishes increasing coefficients for waste disposal. The year 2016 was especially significant in terms of holding users of natural resources accountable in this way. It is worth noting one morean important nuance associated with the calculations. Increasing coefficients for waste disposal are also applied in the case when the NOLR plan was developed in accordance with the requirements, the necessary indicators were set, but in the current period more waste raw materials were generated and stored than specified by the documents.
The limit on the disposal of waste raw materials is the maximum allowable volume of waste of a certain type, which is allowed to be stored in a specific way for a specified period in specialized facilities. When calculating it, the ecological situation in the territory is taken into account. The standard for waste generation is the established volume of waste material of a certain type in the production of a unit of production.
Concretization of concepts
The placement limit, taking into account the above information, is the maximum amount of waste that an enterprise has the right to accumulate for subsequent transfer to a licensed site for long-term storage or disposal. It is determined in accordance with the capacity of the drives and the storage deadline before transportation to the disposal site. However, this approach to the definition of a rather vague concept is far from the only one. According to another opinion, it is believed that the term refers only to the storage / disposal of waste material at special facilities and does not include the concept of warehousing on the territory of the enterprise. Specification of definitions can be found in the Procedure approved byorder of the Ministry of Natural Resources No. 50 of 2010. It, in particular, states that the standards for the formation of waste raw materials are used to establish their expected quantity, taking into account the planned indicators of the volume of products produced, work performed or services provided. The same Procedure establishes that the rules for the development and approval of the NOLR fix the requirements for the preparation and submission of documentation to determine the maximum allowable quantities of materials of a particular type sent to the relevant facilities, taking into account the environmental situation on the ground. This definition is identical to the wording enshrined in Federal Law No. 89. In accordance with this, the plan of standards establishes only a limit on disposal, but not indicators of waste generation. Violation of the declared parameters is equated by the control authorities with an administrative offense. Accordingly, liability arises in the manner prescribed by the Code of Administrative Offenses.