Stock and commodity exchanges have been the nerve centers of the global economy for many years. Today there are about two hundred of them in the world. Some have a history of more than a century and a half. Stock exchanges are an obligatory attribute of states with developed market economic relations.
It is a specialized platform where securities are traded.
World stock exchanges, in addition to the sale and purchase of securities and shares, provide their participants with platforms for trading in other financial instruments, which include options, swaps, derivatives, etc.
These financial institutions also carry out the issue of securities, placement and subsequent redemption. Measures are being taken in which the structure of capital is being changed. Such mechanisms include the payment of dividends as income to security holders.
There are currently a sufficient number of stock exchanges, but they all seriously differ in terms of financial turnover, as well asthe number of assets traded on them. The state of their indices are indicators of the he alth of the global economy.
The world's largest stock exchange
The largest stock market in the world is the stock exchange in New York City. It is an indicator of the financial power of the United States. It is with this exchange that the declines and rises of the world economy over the past 100 years are associated. The world-famous index of this stock exchange - Dow Jones (introduced to indicate the state of the US stock markets) is based precisely on its data. When asked which stock exchange is the largest in the world, the answer is always New York.
Established in 2007, when two trading platforms merged - the European Stock Market (Euronext) and New York. After the merger, it really became the largest stock exchange in the world.
At the time of its formation, the capitalization of NYSE - Euronext structures amounted to almost 16 trillion US dollars. Until now, she confidently holds the championship among various world rankings. More than 3,000 largest companies in the world sell their financial instruments on the platform of this exchange. She manages the stock exchanges of Brussels, Amsterdam, Lisbon and Paris.
Tokyo Stock Exchange
The Tokyo Stock Exchange was formed almost 150 years ago, in the second half of the 19th century. It belongs to the world's oldest trading platforms and is one of the largest exchanges in the world. Its capitalization is second only to the New York Stock Exchange. It is known for the fact that it is here that the Japanese giants place their shares.industries: Toyota, Honda, Olympus, Nikon, etc. Tokyo Stock Exchange Indices – TOPIX and NIKKEI 225.
The London Stock Exchange is the third largest stock exchange in the world, one of the oldest. Its history dates back to the middle of the 16th century. Officially established and registered in 1801.
Currently, almost 50% of all global stock trading is carried out on its platforms. The London Stock Exchange is the most international, options and futures are sold here. FTSE100 - London Stock Exchange Index.
Shanghai Stock Exchange
It was formed relatively recently, in 1990. The largest in mainland China. It is one of the main in Asia and in the list of the largest stock exchanges in the world. Structurally, it is a non-profit organization managed by the China Securities Commission. In addition to trading stocks and bonds, securities of the Chinese government are sold here. SSE Composite is her stock index.
Hong Kong Exchange
One of the ten largest stock exchanges in the world. It ranks sixth in terms of capitalization of companies that operate on its site. Formed in 1947 by the merger of two stock exchanges. Subsequently, several other stock exchanges joined it. Since the spring of 1986, the combined structure has been officially named the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Index - HANG SENG.
Toronto Stock Exchange
Considered one of the most popular in the world. A lot of companies place shares on it, the main share of which is mining andoil industries. Its history dates back to the middle of the 19th century, in 1977 it was the first to introduce an electronic trading system.
Until 2002, the Toronto stock exchange index was the TSX 300. It is now managed by S&P, which led to the change of the stock exchange index - S&P / TSX.
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Deutsche Stock Exchange - the oldest in Europe and the world, the largest in Germany. Founded in 1585 by German merchants.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange Index - DAX is an indicator of the value of shares of more than 300 largest companies in this country. This "barometer" shows the state of the German economy.
The Swiss Stock Exchange was formed in 1995 when the stock exchanges of Zurich, Basel and Geneva were merged into one structure. In fact, it originates from 1823, from the city of Zurich. Due to the fact that this authoritative country in the world of finance, it attracts a very large number of foreign investors to its site. Since 1996, trading and mutual settlements on the Swiss Stock Exchange have been carried out only in automatic mode. It is rightfully considered a member of the group of the largest exchanges in the world. Index - SMI.
The Australian Stock Exchange was established in 1987, when several continental exchanges merged into one network. After two more structures were added to it in 2006, it became the main Australian trading platform. The headquarters and all its structures are located in the city of Sydney. ASX - stockindex.
Korean Stock Exchange
The main stock exchange on the Korean peninsula is located in the city of Busan. Its branches are opened in the capital of South Korea - Seoul. It was established in January 2005 and is one of the largest exchanges in the world in terms of the number of transactions with derivatives.
Its owners are a number of brokerage companies. Stock index – KOSPI.
Commodity exchanges are permanent wholesale markets. They carry out transactions for the purchase and sale of homogeneous goods. Trading is carried out according to the established rules at public auctions. Exchanges contribute to the creation of real prices for goods and raw materials, create a concentration of supply and demand.
Commodity exchanges are divided into universal and specialized, depending on how and what is sold on them.
The history of commodity exchanges began much earlier than stock exchanges. Information about the first one dates back to 1409, when its prototype appeared in the Belgian city of Bruges. And the first functionally organized was created in 1462 in Antwerp.
Currently, about a hundred types of goods are sold on world commodity exchanges. They account for almost 20% of all international trade. Goods sold on the commodity exchange are conventionally grouped into certain groups, namely: energy; non-ferrous and precious metals; grain (barley, oats, rice, rye, wheat); animal oils, meat; industrial raw materials; oilseed products; textiles.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange
Considered the mostthe largest commodity exchange in the world and the most universal. The main trading floor is located in the United States of America, in the city of Chicago.
In 1848 it was founded by 82 grain merchants. It is currently a key player in the international derivatives market. Its role in the distribution of raw materials and the formation of prices for goods is great. It has an impact on the economic development of not only the United States, but also other economies of the world. Statistics show that about 122 million transactions are made on it per day.
London Metal Exchange
London Mercantile Exchange - the largest platform on which non-ferrous metals are sold. Its history dates back to 1571, when the first stock exchange was created in London. It traded not only consumer goods, but also metals - copper and tin. The Commodity and Raw Materials Exchange began to function independently in 1877, having separated into a separate structure.
New York Mercantile Exchange
The world's largest oil futures exchange is the New York Mercantile Exchange. Its history dates back to 1882. After a series of mergers and transformations, it has become a modern exchange. In 2008, together with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, organized a group that functions as a single market.
About Russian stock exchanges
In the world market, Russian stock and commodity exchanges are not in the first place, which is primarily due to the status of the developing and rather weak economy of the Russian Federation.
Howeverthey are traded constantly, tending to sustainable development. The most famous are MICEX-RTS; "St. Petersburg"; Siberian Stock Exchange.