The sensitive sense of smell is a curse for some people and a boon for others. The unique talent first found application in the homeland of the perfume industry - in France. Today, the profession of a perfumer is in demand, since dozens of perfumes are created every year in the world by mixing aromas and creating interesting compositions. What must a perfumer sacrifice in order to smell, and where can a "special" nose come in handy?
Perfumer: the history of the profession
From the moment the profession appeared - from the 12th century - scent specialists have been called "noses". They were later renamed sniffers. Today, masters of smell are called perfumers, but the word "nose" most accurately reflects the essence of the profession. The task of the perfumer lies in the exact definition of the components of the fragrance. Sniffers not only distinguish tens of thousands of smells, but also memorize them, analyze them and can create bouquets from memory with an understanding of what aroma the final composition will have. In the profession of a perfumer, the ability to describe smells is an invaluable skill,necessary to create a perfume.
What does a perfumer do
Perfumers don't just mix different smells - they mentally create new fragrances. It is in such cases that the skills of memorizing smells come in handy. The idea of a fragrance is approved by the perfume company's board, after which a sample is created. The first sample is created from ready-made flavors with a recipe record - the names of the components and their weight. After that, the serious work of perfumers begins. The process of creating a new flavor requires changing the formula, adding and removing components, adjusting their amount, monitoring the appearance of sediment. The result is frozen, filtered, and the council decides on the mass production of the created perfume.
Unlike those who were at the origins of the profession of perfumer, modern masters are able to decipher smells with the help of science. New fragrances are created based on information about longevity fixatives and base chemicals, and additives are selected by perfumers.
What a perfumer should know and be able to do
Special scent - something that every perfumer should have. However, an excellent sense of smell is not enough - natural talent must be developed. The profession of perfumer requires basic knowledge in physics, chemistry, pharmaceuticals and botany. For example, to study at the International School of Perfumery, Cosmetics and Fragrances in Paris, located in Versailles, you need to get a bachelor's degree in chemistry. Training in the profession of a perfumer also requires passing a test inorganic chemistry.
The responsibility of perfumers is not only to identify, memorize and record smells, but also to understand the formulas of each of them. It will not be possible to confine ourselves to these basic knowledge: a specialist needs intuition, fantasy and imagination. Perfumery combines creativity and precision, which is why extraordinary ideas and the possibility of their implementation are valued in it.
The working day of perfumers starts at 6 am and lasts no more than 2-3 hours. A person's sense of smell is sharper in the morning, and during the day smells begin to overlap, which impairs the ability to recognize them.
What is forbidden for a specialist
The description of the profession of a perfumer often indicates certain restrictions. Among them are dermatitis, allergies, respiratory diseases and migraines. People with these problems should not work with a lot of odors that can negatively affect their overall he alth.
The perfumer's main working tool - the nose - must be maintained in perfect condition. Hypothermia, too dry air can become a problem, so you should not subject your sense of smell to such tests. There should be no dust in the rooms, and drafts are the main enemies of the perfumer.
Any influence on the subtle scent of a specialist can become detrimental: spicy and fatty foods, alcohol, smoking. Perhaps the perfumer's profession is the only one that requires a he althy lifestyle.
Lack of stress is the key to quality work of a perfumer. Anxiety, nervousness, restlessness distort smells, which canaffect the accuracy of the bouquet.
In Russia, training for the profession of a perfumer is impossible: there are no accredited state educational institutions in our country. However, they are being replaced by private courses. The largest of them is the St. Petersburg School of Perfumers. Operates in full-time and correspondence modes. The full-time program is divided into two parts, each of which lasts 9 months and will cost the student 130,000 rubles. The part-time course is divided into two part-time programs and a ten-day part-time course. The total cost of the course is 175 thousand rubles. All subjects at the school are taught by practicing perfumers. The courses also train specialists working in industries close to perfumery - image makers, journalists, sellers. An in-depth study program provides knowledge in various fields of science. At the end of the course, graduates are not issued a diploma, but a personal letter of recommendation signed by the entire teaching staff and listing the achievements, knowledge and skills of the student, which is also duplicated on the website.
In addition to the School of Perfumers, there are shortened author's courses - for example, courses for perfumers Anna Gerasimova or Anna Zworykina.
The Paris School of Perfumers remains the most prestigious in the world. You can enter there even if you have a bachelor's degree in chemistry obtained in Russia - the applicant will only need to confirm their knowledge in order to obtain the profession of a perfumer. Scent specialists owe their salaries to their small number and high value.services.
There are not even hundreds of world-famous perfumers, and their earnings are known only to tax agents. However, the amounts received by technologists, creators of industrial compositions, flavors, fragrances, are known: the minimum salary is 32 thousand rubles.
Where else do you need a great scent
A good sense of smell is required not only in the beauty industry. The services of perfumers are in demand in other industries - for example, astronautics. NASA employs several perfumers whose main task is to determine the smells of all objects that fall on board spacecraft. Astronauts staying in an enclosed space for a long time should not be exposed to unpleasant or dangerous odors. Aromatic problems in outer space are solved by knowledge of perfumery and scent formulas.
Smell experts are in demand in forensics. Fragrances often become the main clues that allow you to solve complex cases. The dark side of the profession of a perfumer was perfectly shown in Patrick Suskind's novel "Perfume", which was made into a film of the same name.
Women don't belong here?
The profession of a perfumer has long been considered the prerogative of men. The founders of the famous perfume houses, which to this day occupy leading positions in the market, were men - Jean Patou, Jean-Francois Oubigan, Pierre Francois Pascal Guerlain. According to the centuries-old tradition, their successorswere only men. Due to genetic characteristics, the olfactory abilities of men are better developed and more stable: women are more difficult to perceive odors due to pregnancy, PMS and other changes in the body.
However, over time, the profession of a perfumer opened up to women: Sofia Groyssman is considered the best specialist in America in the industry, and in Europe many perfumers are women.