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Personal income tax accrual: calculation, calculation procedure, payment
Personal income tax accrual: calculation, calculation procedure, payment
Anonim

The calculation of such a tax as personal income tax in an enterprise must be carried out without errors. Since their admission is fraught with pen alties and claims from the tax authorities, which carefully administer this tax. Within the framework of this article, we will consider the basics of calculating personal income tax in accordance with existing legislative norms.

Concept

This tax is the most common option in many countries around the world. It is this tax that is imposed on those individuals who receive certain incomes (including salaries). This tax is one of the main ones in the Russian Federation, which accounts for the lion's share of the state budget.

The main feature of our country in terms of calculating personal income tax is the fact that it is characterized by a flat scale, and not progressive, like in most foreign countries. This means that the tax rate does not depend on the amount and level of income received.

As taxpayers are residents and non-residents of the country who receive the corresponding income. The difference between them is that residents pay amounts from their total income, and non-residents only. This fee is also paid by individual entrepreneurs who are ongeneral system of taxation. from the amounts that are received on the territory of our country.

Object of taxation - salary, business income, other income. There is a list of income that is not subject to tax.

Tax base - the amount of income received. In the situation with IP, the amount of income is reduced by the amount of expenses.

The tax rate depends on who pays (resident or non-resident), as well as on the nature of the income received. The most common value is 13%.

accrual of personal income tax

Accrual. Basics

When calculating personal income tax, the provisions of Art. 225 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation.

The main steps in tax calculation are as follows:

  • determine all amounts of income subject to taxation;
  • the rate is specified for each type of income;
  • determine the base of personal income tax for a certain tax period;
  • the calculation of deductions is carried out according to the formula, which is presented below. The amount is rounded up to full rubles.

Formula for calculating the amount:

NDFL=NBC, where NB is the tax base, i.e.;

С – rate, %

It should take into account the decrease in the tax base by the amount of deductions established by law (property, social, standard).

It is necessary to check whether the income received is included in the list of those that are completely exempted from paying personal income tax.

In conclusion, we determine the total amount of tax for all types of income by summing up all the accrued amounts.

Calculation example

Popova A.A. has a laborcontract, and the calculation of personal income tax is carried out by a tax agent. Suppose that for February 2019, the amount of Popova's salary A.A. in Romashka LLC amounted to 60,000 rubles. The tax deduction for a child under 5 years old was issued to her upon application. Romashka LLC is a tax agent. The accounting department must calculate the amount of personal income tax payable. The transfer of the amount is made to the budget no later than the day following the day of payment of earnings.

Calculation order:

  • amount subject to taxation Popova A.A. – 60,000 rubles;
  • rate - 13%;
  • tax base: 60000-1400=58600 rubles;
  • NDFL: 586000, 13=7618 rubles.
calculation of personal income tax in 1s

Who and how conducts the calculation and payment

Calculation and payment of tax is made by the tax agent, and in the situation of his absence - by the individual himself. A tax agent, as a rule, is an employer with whom an individual has entered into an employment contract or a civil law contract. He also handles payroll and income tax. The deductions are made by the accountant, and the employee receives his money in his hands, taking into account the payments made.

Situations are frequent when a person has unofficial sources of income. In this case, the entire responsibility for payments lies with him.

Application

Tax deductions and personal income tax accrual for individuals can be divided into two types:

  • a situation where the tax base decreases and the amount of payments decreases;
  • the amounts withheld and paid to the budget are returned to the taxpayer.

Tax deductions are declarative in nature, which means the need to submit an application to the tax office for the provision of such deductions. This is important!

The main types of deductions in the calculation of personal income tax for 2019:

  • standard: those provided to the employee himself, for children;
  • social;
  • property.

The table shows the first group.

To the employee himself

Amount, rub

For children in relation to parents (adoptive parents)

Amount, rub

Liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

3000

For the first child up to 18 years old. (up to 24 years old, if studying full-time)

1400

Military Disabled

3000

For the first child up to 18 years old. (up to 24 years old, if studying full-time)

1400

Heroes of the USSR, Heroes of Russia

500

For the third and subsequent children up to 18 years old. (up to 24 years old, if studying full-time)

3000

Disabled child under 18.

12000

Disabled child 1 or 2 groups

12000

For other categories of citizens, deductions for children are.

Taxpayer

Onfirst child up to 18 years old. (up to 24 years old, if studying full-time)

For the second child up to 18 years old. (up to 24 years old, if studying full-time)

For the third and subsequent children up to 18 years old. (up to 24 years old, if studying full-time)

Disabled child under 18

Disabled child 1 or 2 groups

1

Guardians

1400

1400

3000

6000

6000

2

Single parent (adoptive parent)

2800

2800

6000

24000

24000

3

Sole guardian

2800

2800

6000

12000

12000

calculation of personal income tax deductions

The group of social deductions involves division into subgroups:

  • training;
  • treatment;
  • contributions to NPF;
  • additional contributions to the funded part of the pension;
  • transfer of donations;
  • payment for qualification assessment.

Such deductions are only available upon written application.

The table shows the main characteristics of these deductions.

Who is eligible

Training

Treatment is simple

Treatment is expensive

The taxpayer himself

No more than 120 tr. per year

No more than 120 tr. per year

Full cost

Children of the taxpayer (under 24)

No more than 50 tr. per year

No more than 120 tr. per year under 18

Full amount under 18

Brothers and sisters (under 24)

No more than 50 tr. per year

No more than 120 tr. per year under 18

Full amount under 18

Guarded taxpayer (under 24)

No more than 50 tr. per year

No more than 120 tr. per year under 18

Full amount under 18

Spouse

-

No more than 120 tr. per year

Full cost

Parents

-

No more than 120 tr. per year

Full cost

These deductions can be given to both sellers and buyers. The table provides information on these deductions.

Term of ownership and type

Amount, tr

Amount of deduction, tr

Size when selling other property, t.r

Less than 5 years ago (purchased andbuilding)

1000

250

-

Heir less than 3 years

1000

250

-

Gift from loved one less than 3 years old

1000

250

-

Privatization less than 3 years

1000

250

-

Rent less than 3 years

1000

250

-

Property less than 3 years old

-

-

250

income tax posting

Basics of Accounting

Accounting is carried out using account 68.1 in the context of analytics: tax, pen alties, fines.

Calculation and payments are carried out either by a tax agent or by individuals themselves.

An example of postings for calculating personal income tax is as follows:

  • accrued income: Dt73-Kt 68.01;
  • withheld by personal income tax: Dt70-Kt68.1;
  • personal income tax accrued from dividends of the founders: Dt 75 - Kt 68.01;
  • tax transferred to the budget: Dt 68.01 – Ct 51;
  • personal income tax accrued from sick leave allowance: Dt70-Kt68.01.

Application 1C. Features

Let's consider the issues of calculating personal income tax in 1s.

In 1C 8.3. Tax accounting takes place in a special register. It is called "Individual Tax Accounting Register" in the section"Salary and personnel" - Salary - Payroll reports.

Data is generated from several places:

  • individual's card;
  • personal income tax register;
  • deduction statement.

The amount of personal income tax charges in 1C is the basis for deductions to the budget.

Tax and sick leave. Nuances

Information on the accrual of sick leave in personal income tax is contained in paragraph 1 of Art. 217 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation. This benefit is subject to income tax. The main document is a certificate of incapacity for work. The tax is calculated from it.

The tax base is the accrued amount of benefits in full. The rate is also 13%. The peculiarity lies in the rules of retention. The payment is included in taxable income in the month of payment. The deadline for payment is no later than the last day of the month in which the benefit was paid.

accrual of hospital income tax

Reporting for tax agents

A taxpayer or an employer can pay personal income tax to the budget. Each option has its own reporting forms, deadlines.

In the tax agent situation, the reporting period is a year.

Individual income tax is charged in the total amount throughout the year. It is calculated for each payout option and is immediately held by the company. The balance is given to the employee.

The tax is calculated every month on the entire amount of income, while the payment of advance personal income tax is not charged.

Tax is paid no later than the day following the payment of wages.

Individual income tax accrual to document typecertificates are generated for each employee separately. Accounting does this.

In 2016, a new reporting form was introduced in the form of a 6-NDFL declaration. Payroll in it contains the aggregate income tax rates from employees for the tax period.

There are 2 types of tax. Declarations with sign 1 - for income from which personal income tax is withheld. Symbol 2 - for income from which tax cannot be withheld. For example, when income was paid not in cash, but in a non-cash form.

Declaration 6-personal income tax is formed every quarter by increasing values. The deadline is the last day of the month following the reporting month. The final declaration for the year is submitted no later than April 1 of the following year. 2-personal income tax is provided once a year: with sign 2 - until March 1, with sign 1 - until April 30.

accrual of 6 personal income tax salaries

Reporting for individuals and entrepreneurs

If we are talking about an individual or an individual entrepreneur who independently calculates income tax from individuals, then the situation is as follows:

  • period is one year;
  • Individual income tax is calculated and paid at the end of the year, no later than April 1;
  • at the same time, the taxpayer can, at the request of the inspection, make advance payments every quarter. This usually refers to businessmen;
  • The reporting form is a 3-personal income tax declaration indicating all income acquired (except for those for which the employer or other agent pays tax). 3-NDFL is due once a year no later than April 30.
personal income tax agreement

Payroll

Usually, the calculation and payment of income tax on wages is made by the employer, and the employees themselves receive the amount "in hand" minus payments to the budget. But the question of how to calculate income tax from the profits of individuals appears quite often. People want to know in advance the amount of "permanent" income they will receive in one way or another.

The tax amount is calculated as follows: monthly income13%.

In this case, all payments are taken into account, including bonuses, sick leave, vacation pay, advances, wages. In a situation where deductions are granted to an employee (for example, if there are minor children), the base is reduced every month by the amount of tax deductions, and income tax is calculated on this difference.

We emphasize that this happens until the revenue in the form of income for the year according to the accrual method does not exceed 350 thousand rubles. Further, tax deductions cease to be valid.

The amount received is deducted from the salary before it is issued to the employee. Personal income tax, “due to” the share of the advance payment, is charged at the time of issuing most of the wages.

accrual of personal income tax document

Calculation from entrepreneur's income

In the case when the funds are received by the entrepreneur not in the form of salary, but as commercial income, the payment of income tax from individuals is shifted to the shoulders of the businessman. The procedure is complicated by the presence of so-called professional deductions. In other words, the entrepreneur reducesyour tax base on the amount of costs incurred.

The tax period is a year. Advance quarterly payments are almost always paid. The tax rate on commercial income (or other income related to professional work) is 13%. The tax base is the value of income reduced by the amount of deductions (expenses).

In the case of a professional deduction, it should be noted that the costs must be included in the list of accepted and have official proof. Unreported expenses are not deducted in full, but in the form of a statutory percentage of income (from 20 to 40%).

There is no need to calculate and pay income tax after each transaction.

Let's consider a specific example of calculating personal income tax.

Income of businessman Petrov V.A. for 1 sq. 2019 amounted to 150 tr., the costs for the same period amounted to 32 thousand rubles. And also, Petrov V. rented his apartment for 15 tr. per month. It is necessary to calculate the amount of personal income tax.

Tax base for business income: 150-32=118 thousand rubles

Income tax rate 13%118=15.34 thousand rubles

Profit from renting an apartment is 153=45 tr., the amount of income tax is: 13%45=5.85 tr.

The total amount of tax is 15.34 + 5.85=21.19 thousand rubles.

Calculation with other income

One of the more difficult things is accounting for all the income generated during the tax period. In addition to wages and income from employment, other income is taxed, as well as non-obvious funds.

To prevent questions fromtax inspection and significant fines for preventing tax evasion, you must be careful in maintaining your own personal or business budget. Accounting for all transactions and income received will allow you to accurately calculate the amount of tax.

Let's list the more common sources of additional income:

  • real estate rental;
  • providing professional services without registering an organization (freelance work, various part-time jobs);
  • receive winnings;
  • receiving gifts of valuables, shares, cash;
  • interest income;
  • profit from trading.

A complete list of possible incomes can be found in the RF Tax Code. For each type of earnings, the tax is calculated individually, and the rates may vary significantly depending on the nature of the operation. At the moment, for the Russian Federation, avoiding income tax payments is becoming commonplace. In the past few years, the tax authorities have become more active due to the widespread underestimation of income amounts.

Zero personal income tax

Form 6-NDFL, as well as 2-NDFL, is submitted by employers who have employees and pay them wages. The obligation to provide reporting forms in the absence of payments to individuals during the reporting period does not arise for the employer.

So, there is no payroll, and there is no need to submit personal income tax. It is possible to send a letter to the tax office about the reasons for the lack of payments.

Conclusion

Income tax is the main source of replenishment of the budget in the state. It must be paid by allpersons (as well as those engaged in commercial work) who receive income.

Calculation and accrual of personal income tax are carried out either by the employing organization or by the taxpayer. Particular attention in the calculations should be paid to the correct determination of the tax base - the amount of payments can be significantly reduced through the use of various deductions and deductions.

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