Classification is a concept that is interpreted as a general scientific method of systematizing knowledge, aimed at organizing a certain set (set) of objects of various segments of reality, activity and knowledge to be studied, into a system of subordinate classes (groups), according to which data objects are distributed on the basis of their similarity in certain essential properties. Our article will focus on the most important aspects of the presented category.
Today you can often hear the concept of classification. What it is? A class should be understood as a finite or infinite collection of objects, selected according to some attribute, relation or property common to them, conceived as something whole. The objects that make up a class are named after its members. The key principle of species classification is thateach component of the collection of objects covering it must fall into a certain subset.
Main purpose of classification
We found out that classification is a method by which knowledge can be systematized. Its main purpose is to determine the place in the system of certain objects, as well as the formation of strong ties between them. This is what determines the normative-dimensional ordering of the whole set, which is divided into heteronomous to each other, but homogeneous within themselves in some respects, subsets that are separated from each other in the future. A subject who has a key (criterion) for classifying species can take advantage of the opportunity to navigate in a large number of objects.
This category always reflects the level of knowledge available at this point in time, here and now, and also sums it up and forms the so-called "topological map". However, if you look from the other side, we can conclude that the classification helps to find gaps in the knowledge that already exists. It serves as the basis for prognostic and diagnostic procedures.
Classification as a result of cognition
In the so-called "science of describing objects" the classification of codes or other categories is the goal (outcome) of knowledge (for example, systematics in biology or attempts to classify sciences according to different bases). It is worth noting that in our case, further development is presented as a proposal for a fundamentally new classification or improvement of the former. Yes, the term"classification" is used both to refer to the named procedure and to display its result.
It's worth knowing that classification is a category that performs certain tasks. It is designed to solve two key problems: presentation in a convenient for viewing, further recognition and reliable form of the entire study area; the conclusion in itself of extremely complete information related to its objects.
Types of category
It is customary to distinguish between artificial and natural classifications of systems or other objects. It depends, first of all, on the materiality of the feature underlying it. The natural variation of a category presupposes the existence of an important criterion of distinction. Artificial classifications of means, codes or methods can be built in principle on the basis of any feature. Their options, as a rule, are various classifications of an auxiliary nature, including alphabetical, technical and similar indexes.
Different classifications solve their problems in different ways. For example, an artificial classification of methods or systems, where grouping is carried out on the basis of only conveniently distinguishable and arbitrarily chosen characteristics of objects, can only overcome the first of these tasks. In the variety of the natural type, the grouping is realized on the basis of a whole complex of properties inherent in objects that express their nature. This allows them to be combined into natural groups. In turn, the latter formsingle system. In such a classification, the number of characteristics of the classified objects, which are put in accordance with their placement in the system, is considered the largest when compared with other groupings.
It turned out that classification is a method of systematizing information, which has two varieties. It is advisable to consider their main differences. So, the natural view, in contrast to the artificial one, based on the fullness of understanding the content of certain objects, is considered not a banal descriptive and recognizable category, but a category that explains the reasons for the commonality of the characteristics of classification groups, as well as the nature of the relations that arise between groups. Among the well-known examples of this variety in relation to the sciences, one can note the periodic system of chemical elements; classification of crystals, which is carried out on the basis of Fedorov's groupings of transformations; genealogical and morphological language classifications; phylogenetic systematics in a science like biology.
Unlike an artificial one, usually built on a pragmatic basis, a natural classification is formed on the basis of observations and a pool of experimental data in a particular field of knowledge based on the results of a synthesis of theoretical concepts and empirical generalizations. It can be concluded that the natural classification of the main elements to some extent always acts as a substantiated typology capable of solving problems of a meaningful plan, as well asgenerate forecasts based on new results.
Empirical and theoretical
In addition to artificial and natural, it is customary to distinguish between empirical and theoretical classifications. To date, their other divisions are also known, for example, into private and general. By the way, private ones are called special in a different way. General classifications contain an overview of all objects of a particular kind. They suggest grouping on the basis of characteristics that express a natural community and carry information about the cause of this community, in other words, about some kind of natural pattern. Such a variety takes place in the sciences of a fundamental type, the main task of which is to objectively cognize the real world by identifying the laws that dominate it. Whereas special, that is, private classifications are characteristic primarily for practical, applied branches of knowledge, the main purpose of which is to ensure activity.
It should be noted that the subject area of special classifications is considered narrower than relatively general ones. They also proceed from the most important properties of an objective nature, which relate to the object to be divided. However, grouping as a whole is implemented in this case in order to satisfy certain pragmatic needs. Thus, a special type of category complements and expands the knowledge that displays the general view.
Notion in logic
In logic, the classification of years or other categories is considered a special case of division. Last thingrepresents a distribution into groupings of objects conceivable precisely in the original concept. The groups resulting from the division are called its members. The sign in accordance with which the operation is performed is usually called the basis of division. It is worth noting that in each logical division there is, therefore, a base of division, a divisible concept, and members of the division.
Differences from other forms
In its structure, in other words, according to the type of relations in which the concepts that make it up, in particular, the relations of coordination and subordination, classification differs from other forms of systematization of knowledge, for example, characteristic of parametric systems of natural science plan, where concepts correlate directly with quantitative indicators. However, at the same time, the division can be carried out not only in accordance with the qualitative features of the objects of study, but also with parametric ones, having quantitative indicators as its base and result.
Such grouping is widely used in statistics, forming the basis of statistical techniques, which, as a rule, are used only in relation to quantitatively expressed information. In these cases, groupings are realized on the basis of features that can be measured and therefore have certain numerical values, and the whole order of the groups created in this way leads to a functional dependence or to a peculiar distribution of numbers. When there are many values of this or that quantitative attribute that are simply registered, the mind does notcapable of capturing the true essence of the phenomenon under study. To determine its characteristic features, it is necessary to condense the data that is available, as well as condense it through grouping. At the same time, the latter should be such that a significant part of the collected information is not lost or distorted, and as a result, an accurate picture of the phenomenon that is subject to research is obtained. Qualitative and quantitative divisions do not overlap. Despite the fact that they have similar objects as their subject, they analyze their different aspects and exist in the general set of studies of these objects.
Representation of classifications
Classifications are usually presented in the form of tables or trees, which eventually come down to a hierarchical tree-like structure, as shown in the figure:
A classification tree is a set of vertices (points) connected by edges (lines). Each of them is responsible for a certain class of volumes of concepts, that is, objects that have similar features. These classes are called taxonomic units (taxa). The ribs show which subspecies these taxa are divided into. The root of the tree is the vertex K0. It represents a set of objects of the original type. Taxa are grouped according to stages. In each of the tiers, taxa are collected, which are obtained as a result of using the same number of division operations to the original concept. It is worth noting that those that in a particular classification are no longer further divided intospecies are called terminal taxa. It is customary to consider such a classification as limiting, the taxa of the terminal type of which serve as single concepts. However, depending on the goals pursued in the formation of the classification, taxa of the terminal plan may not be considered as such.
So, we have considered the category of classification and its main aspects. In conclusion, it should be noted that the development of science shows that the formation of a classification goes through a number of stages, ranging from artificial systems to the selection of natural groups and the establishment of a natural classification system. Aristotle relied precisely on the qualitative classification of physical bodies, which he divided according to the difference in their “nature”, which reveals the methods of their action.