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Breeds of cows: description and characteristics. Dairy breed of cows

Breeds of cows: description and characteristics. Dairy breed of cows
Breeds of cows: description and characteristics. Dairy breed of cows
Anonim

In order for the purchase of livestock to meet your expectations, you need to not just buy the first cows you like, but take into account a number of critical factors. One of these is the adaptability of individuals to a particular climate, as well as the peculiarities of keeping in private farmsteads.

That is, it is necessary to take into account some specific characteristics of breeds, cows and certain types of livestock. We will try to consider the most popular individuals that farmers prefer to breed and maintain in Russia and neighboring countries.

All breeds of cows can be divided into three main types - these are meat, dairy and combined, that is, meat and dairy. There are about three hundred of them in total, but specifically in our country there is not much variety, and all varieties are limited to seven dozen. This state of affairs has developed due to the variable climate in most of the Russian territory.

In order for a cow to grow and gain weight, she needs juicy feed, and in our country, average summers and long winters prevail, which clearly does not favor the breeding of this type of livestock. Especially when, as an alternative, there are less expensive and early options, and withquite a good meat.

That is why, if only what breeds of cows are not suitable for Russian realities. Here we need persistent and unpretentious individuals who will survive the winter normally, and are not so picky about food. They will be discussed in this article.

Dutch breed

This is a dairy breed of cows, and it is considered not only the founder of this direction, but also its best representative. Individuals are used by breeders as the basis for breeding more versatile and undemanding breeds.

Dairy breeds of cows

This breed is very popular not only in Russia, but throughout Europe. Thanks to the tireless efforts of breeders, the yield efficiency of milk and meat has increased markedly over the past ten years. In addition, the Dutch breed of cows has become more enduring, gained muscle mass and at the same time decreased from its original size by about 20%.

In one year, a cow can produce up to 5 thousand liters of excellent milk with a fat content of 4%. Dutch individuals relatively quickly reach their maturity, as well as mass. If a newborn heifer is born weighing 35-40 kg, then by milking (or slaughter) age she weighs a ton, gaining 1000 grams per day.

Simmental

Simmental breed of cows appeared thanks to the efforts of Swiss breeders. This country is rich in succulent herbs and has excellent climatic conditions, so the individual has perfectly taken root on the fat Swiss slopes and pleases farmers with a recordbored.

The best breeds of cows

Naturally, in Russian conditions, such a breed of cows must be bought with an eye to the external environment. The Dutch cow feels great in the Rostov, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. The situation is a little worse on the Middle Volga, and further north it has to organize special conditions for it and spend money on expensive food and vitamins.

Features of the breed

If a cow has good, or rather regular and fresh pasture, then good milk yields are provided. She calmly digests various types of food, and her maintenance in private farmsteads does not cause serious trouble.

In a year, the Simmental breed can produce about 5 thousand liters of milk with an acceptable fat content of 4%. If you properly feed the cow and give her vitamins with expensive supplements, then you can achieve double milk production.

The weight of an adult Simmental can reach almost 600-700 kg, so many farmers do not hesitate to breed it for meat production, getting tasty and lean meat.

Ayrshire breed

The Ayrshire breed of cows was bred by Scottish breeders and is distinguished by excellent productivity and good endurance. The red-and-white cow, although deprived of such an enviable weight as her older sisters from Holland and Switzerland, is no less productive than this - about 5 thousand liters of milk per year with a fat content of 4%.

Meat breeds of cows

One of the distinguishing features of the breed is adaptability todifficult climatic conditions. The individual feels great in the middle lane, and she does not need such care as, for example, a Simmental cow. The only thing worth clarifying is that the breed, although it has adapted to the cold and specific winter food, has become poorly tolerant of heat. Therefore, for the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, this is not the best option.

The breed received other notable visual differences - these are horns. Lyre-shaped bone outgrowths are present even in females. The individual has a wide chest, the same straight legs and a graceful neck. A harmonious figure and the absence of pronounced muscles give out a dairy breed in the Ayrshire cow. It should also be noted that the cow belongs to the early maturing species and is ready to give birth by the age of two.

Jersey breed

The noble Jersey cow breed comes from England and has a long breeding history. The breeders have made great strides. The cow was distinguished not only by high milk yield, but also by a record milk fat content, reaching up to 7%.

The best breeds of cows

The reaction of the British authorities to the results of breeders was quite expected. At one time, the export of the Jersey breed outside the state was strictly prohibited. Such drastic measures were caused by fears of mixing of individuals, as well as a decrease in the quality of milk yields. Year after year, the strict bans slowly began to be broken, and cows appeared in the rest of Europe and in Russia.

Distinctive features of the breed

Besides amazing quality, I'm tired ofthe individual distinguished himself by his unpretentiousness. The climate in England is not the friendliest, so cows feel great in our fields and meadows, including dry areas.

Distinctive features of the exterior of the Jeyser breed are a light frame, a massive udder, a long body and a small head. The color of the cow is classic - brown or brownish. With rare exceptions, you can find red spots or some other marks on the skin.

The weight of the female does not exceed half a ton, and the bulls can catch up with a mass of up to 700 kg. In meat breeding, the cow showed itself far from the best, so the main direction of the breed is high-quality milk.

Holstein breed

Some mistakenly believe that the Holstein breed of cows originated in Europe. Actually it is not. The individual is a long and careful result of American and Canadian breeders. The new cows were based on black breeds of cows from Holland and over a hundred years of trial and error they have changed it greatly.

Black cow breed

Today, the Holstein cow is considered one of the most common in the world. One of the most remarkable traits of an individual is a high milk yield. For a year, you can get up to 8 thousand liters of good milk with 3.7% fat content. Moreover, the cow is distinguished not only by excellent milk yield, but also by a high rate of milk yield - about 3.5 liters per minute.

Today's Holstein cows quickly gain their maximum weight, which is almost a ton for females and up to 1200 kg for bulls. Exterior breed receivedclassic: a large and long body, a massive and strong back, as well as a large chest.

In our country, Holstein cows are enviably popular, and it is in the dairy direction, not meat. They are unpretentious, almost omnivorous and can endure climatic hardships relatively calmly.

Switzerland

Another Swiss individual worthy of attention. As a result of selection, the cow received a brown color, thin skin and short hair. If you put the above individuals in a row, then the body of the Swiss cow is noticeably elongated, and the back is practically devoid of bends - even and strong. Everything else has the usual forms: a wide chest, a dense neck, a short muzzle and barely noticeable horns.

Characteristics of breeds of cows

Adult individuals in adulthood gain weight up to 600 kg in females and up to a ton in bulls. One of the main features of the cow is its excellent acclimatization to almost any strip. If you properly take care of the cow's diet and select the diet with due literacy, then she will thank you with good milk yield - up to 5 thousand liters of milk per year.

Kholmogory breed

Among other dairy individuals, the Kholmogory breed is probably familiar to anyone who is at least a little interested in animal husbandry. Burenka was born thanks to the efforts of Arkhangelsk breeders.

Description of breeds of cows

As mentioned above, the Russian climate is in no way conducive to cattle breeding, and specialists managed to breed a breed that adequately enduresdomestic bad weather, plus everything has excellent milk yield. Here you can add a good fat content of the resulting product - 4%, and the unpretentiousness of the cow itself to nutrition.

In a year, a Kholmogory specimen can produce 6,000 liters of milk. If you take care of the cow with due attention and care, then the milk yield will increase by at least 20%. The breed was bred as a dairy breed, as indicated by its impressive udder, but village farmers do not disdain the meat direction, although the mass and quality of the animal's meat does not seem to contribute to this. The female gains weight up to 500 kg, and the bulls up to 800.

Yaroslavl breed

Yaroslavskaya Burenka is considered one of the best among her compatriots. Just like in the case of the Kholmogory cow, the Yaroslavl cow adapts perfectly to the harsh Russian climatic conditions.

black cow

The exterior of the animal and the existing muscles do not contribute to the development of the meat direction, but, nevertheless, with proper feeding, you can get a very good result. The weight of an adult female fluctuates within half a ton, and males gain up to 800 kg. As for milk yield, here we have a solid result of 5 thousand liters per year, and with a fat content of 4.5%. And this is very good for domestic cows.

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