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Technology for growing champignons at home for beginners
Technology for growing champignons at home for beginners
Anonim

Champignons are a popular, he althy and tasty product. Despite their price, races do not stay on the shelves in the store. This type of mushroom is grown on an industrial scale, and growing mushrooms at home has recently become fashionable.

This type of product contains many useful substances: glucose, carbohydrates, vitamins, easily digestible fats, and amino acids. Mushrooms can be boiled, fried, marinated and baked. This variety has excellent taste and is a great alternative to meat.

Mushrooms at home

Champignons in nature

The process of growing champignons at home is simple, anyone who wants to grow he althy and tasty mushrooms can master it. Ease of care and cultivation is due to the fact that this type of mushroom grows everywhere in nature: on the edges, in meadows, in lowlands, in forests - in those places where the soil moisture is sufficient for the growth and development of the plant.

When growingmushrooms at home, they can be cultivated in the garden, in the garden, in the basement, greenhouse, garage, cellar. Mushrooms grow well where the air temperature does not rise above twenty degrees, and the humidity level is at least eighty percent. Lighting has no effect on growing mushrooms.

Preparing to grow at home

For the successful cultivation of champignons at home, it is necessary to carry out preliminary preparation for this process. It consists of the following steps:

  1. Choosing where mushrooms will be grown.
  2. Conducting disinfection of the premises.
  3. Creating an optimal microclimate.
  4. Preparation of soil for growing mushrooms.
  5. Champignon variety selection.
  6. Planting mycelium.
  7. Care, harvest.

With the right organization of the place, mushrooms can be harvested all year round. The most difficult thing is to properly prepare the place for growing, and the process itself is very simple.

Currently, there are about fifty varieties of champignons, which have slight differences in appearance. They differ in the color of the cap, its structure, as well as the shelf life of the product.

Growing mushrooms at home

Growing options

There are several ways to grow champignons at home. For beginners, it is important to decide which method is more suitable:

  1. Growing in beds. This technology is considered the simplest and is ideal for personal use, but not forbusiness. This method has a drawback: if the substrate is infected with diseases, it will have to be completely changed, which is not very convenient.
  2. Growing in bags or boxes. These types of cultivation technologies have great advantages. If a disease is detected, you can remove the box or bag with infected soil. Also, this method allows you to rationally use the area. The only drawback is the need to manually stuff the bags with the substrate, which is inconvenient for large-scale cultivation.

You can grow mushrooms in the basement, in the greenhouse, at the dacha or in your own private house. Some practice growing mushrooms in an apartment. Any room chosen should be well ventilated.

Growing in the basement

Before you start growing champignon mushrooms at home, you need to decide on the variety. It is best to choose high-yielding mycelia, such as Silvan 130, Houser A15. They are unpretentious and very "prolific".

For mushrooms to grow, they need fresh air. Mushrooms emit carbon dioxide, and at its high concentration, the plant begins to stretch, the mushroom leg lengthens.

Experienced mushroom growers when growing champignons at home for beginners recommend disinfecting the premises. To grow mushrooms, it is necessary to maintain a sufficiently high level of humidity, and this leads to the appearance of mold, fungal diseases on the walls, floors, ceiling of the room. To avoid this, it is necessary to carry out disinfection and processing.basement.

Growing champignons at home reviews

Processing the premises

When deciding to grow champignon mushrooms at home, you need to take care of their quality and carry out preventive work to disinfect the premises. This can be done in many ways:

  1. The most popular processing method is the use of whitewash. All walls, ceiling are treated with whitewash with the addition of copper sulphate. To prepare the mixture, you need to dilute two kilograms of lime in a bucket of water and add one hundred grams of copper sulfate. Ceilings and walls are whitewashed with a ready-made product. When working with this drug, be sure to use protective equipment.
  2. Another way involves using 400 grams of bleach diluted in a bucket of water. By irrigation method, the composition is applied to the walls and ceiling.
  3. You can treat walls and other surfaces with 4% Formalin.
  4. The sulfur bomb is good at disinfecting the room, but it is not always possible to use it in the basement.

After treatment, the room is well ventilated.

Ventilation system

The technology of growing champignon mushrooms at home provides for good ventilation. When organizing it, it should be borne in mind that insects can try to enter the room through the ventilation pipes. Therefore, it is better to close the airbags with a net. If you plan to create a business, then the ventilation system must be equipped with fans. Where possible, replaceable air purifiers are installed.filters.

Growing mushrooms in bags

Additional equipment

When growing champignons at home in bags or in boxes, it is necessary to additionally equip the room with a hygrometer, thermometer. If you plan to grow mushrooms all year round, then the basement should be heated.

During growing in the hot season, plants are irrigated with water from a spray bottle, and with excess humidity, the room is ventilated.

In the basement or other room where mushrooms will be grown, dim light is enough. This is a distinctive feature that distinguishes this type of plant from growing those that cannot vegetate without sufficient light.

Zoning the premises

Modern technology for growing champignons at home involves dividing the room into zones. One is used for the origin of mushrooms. Here a special substrate is used, along which the mycelium grows. In the second zone, boxes or bags with mushrooms are placed, where they are forcing.

In different zones the temperature is kept different. For incubation, a temperature of about 24 degrees is required, and for the growth of mushrooms - no higher than eighteen.

Growing mushrooms at home

Growing substrate

One of the most important steps in successful mushroom growing is the preparation of the substrate. The quality of the grown products depends on the correctness of the prepared substrate.

Usually, on the mycelium packaging, manufacturers indicate what quality the substrate should be and how itcook. It varies slightly for growing different varieties, but in general there are no significant differences.

To prepare the soil, take compost and keep it for a month in a well-ventilated place without direct sunlight. The compost itself should be moderately moist, as excess moisture can disrupt the fermentation process.

It is best to prepare the compost under a canopy so that all the emitted substances can be weathered. The absence of the smell of ammonia indicates the readiness of the compost.

During cooking, a little lime is added to the soil and everything is mixed. Be sure to add superphosphate fertilizer according to the instructions on the package.

The finished substrate should be loose, it should not stick to your hands. Rotted scrap should easily disintegrate in the hands. You can buy ready-made compost for growing mushrooms in garden stores, but it will not have all the qualities of homemade soil.

The composition of the compost can be as follows:

  1. Horse manure (100 kg), straw (100 kg).
  2. Urea or s altpeter (2 kg).
  3. Chalk (5 kg).
  4. Superphosphate (2 kg).

For the preparation of soil, fresh manure is used, as long as it has a lot of nutrients. The remaining ingredients are added to it in the indicated proportions. Sawdust, shavings of coniferous trees should not be allowed to get into the substrate, as they release resin that has a detrimental effect on mushrooms.

Straw must be soaked in hot water for a day before use. For this, any wide container is suitable,where the grass is placed. After soaking, the straw is laid in layers, alternating with manure. The result should be about five layers. Each layer is moistened with hot water, but do not moisten abundantly.

Three days later, the composition is turned over. At this point, phosphate fertilizers and urea are introduced. Four days later, the composition is mixed again, the remaining elements are introduced into it.

Mushroom cultivation features

After the compost matures, it is placed in bags or boxes for growing mushrooms.

Planting mycelium

To grow mushroom mycelium at home you need:

  1. Get enough mycelium for planting. So, for one square meter of compost, you will need 500 grams of mycelium or four hundred grams of varietal spores.
  2. When using mycelium, it is necessary to spread it evenly over the entire container with soil. The distance between them is maintained at least 20 centimeters. For planting, small depressions are made in the substrate, 5x5 cm in size. Mycelium is laid in these holes. When using spores, they are evenly scattered over the surface of the substrate.
  3. After a while (about two weeks), cobwebs will be visible on the surface, covering the container with soil. By this time, the humidity should be at least 80%. So that the soil does not dry out, it can be irrigated with a spray bottle. With a small landing area, the boxes can be covered with glass or film. Mycelium grows at a temperature not lower than 24 degrees.
  4. Overgrown myceliumsprinkled with a five-centimeter layer of compost. After three days, the container is transferred to where the mushrooms will be grown or the temperature is lowered to fifteen degrees.

For backfilling use soil prepared from one part of limestone, five parts of peat and four of ordinary earth. The first harvest can be harvested in a couple of months.

One mycelium can be harvested about eight times.

Mushrooms are harvested by twisting to prevent infection from entering the mycelium. After the first harvest, the box is again sprinkled with peat mixture.

Growing mushrooms in garden beds

It is unlikely to succeed in growing champignon mushrooms at home in the open field, but getting a lot of delicious mushrooms for the table is quite a comprehensible task.

For cultivation, a shady place is chosen, moderately moist. In the selected area, the soil should not dry out, and the sun should not illuminate the beds. In the heat, you can cover the mushrooms with a covering material to create an optimal microclimate.

When grown outdoors, after sprouting mycelium, it is necessary to sprinkle cobwebs with a layer of soil.

The easiest way to grow champignons at home in the open field is only suitable for spring and autumn. At this time, the temperature is favorable for the active growth of mushrooms, and the rains will help create the right level of humidity. With this method of cultivation, after about a month and a half, you can harvest the first crop.

Growing champignons on racks

Growing in the country

Any method of growing champignons at home must comply with cultivation technology. According to it, spores or mycelium are best planted in pre-prepared land. Some mushroom growers specially import soil from the forest for this purpose.

The selected substrate is fertilized, moistened. It should not contain large fractions, remnants of roots. When planting mycelium in open ground, it is important to observe the distance between the mushrooms. It must be at least twenty centimeters. The pits themselves are made shallow - about five centimeters. After the growth of the cobweb, it is important to sprinkle the mycelium with a five-centimeter layer of soil.

According to reviews, growing champignons at home requires additional watering. This is done by irrigation. After harvesting the first crop, watering is reduced so that the roots do not rot.

As soon as all waves of mushrooms are collected, the substrate is disposed of. It can be used as tree mulch. It is impossible to re-apply the soil for growing the next batch. All containers used must be disinfected, and the premises are also processed.

A business like growing champignons at home can only be organized if there is enough space, because you need not only to grow mycelium separately, but also create special conditions for the growth of mushrooms. Also, after harvesting, it is necessary to carry out the processing of the premises, which means that the entire mushroom plantation will have to be removed to another place. Therefore, if you want to start your own mushroom business, you should take care of the premises. Some spendprocessing the premises twice a year - in spring and autumn. At this time, mushrooms and mycelium are placed in a greenhouse, and after complete ventilation of the basement, they are brought back.

Reviews of experienced mushroom growers

There are many different moments that mushroom growers had to face. According to reviews, growing mushrooms is more difficult than oyster mushrooms. For this type of fungus, it is necessary to create optimal conditions: ventilation, an irrigation system, automatic watering are needed.

Don't grow mushrooms in the basement of wooden houses. There are sad experiences and reviews that say that this business option caused fungal infections in the wood of the house, although the room was processed.

Those who grow mushrooms in concrete structures rarely experience fungal diseases. Basically, all plants are even, beautiful, he althy and very tasty.

Cultivation of champignons for beginners is quite understandable, the main thing is to follow the process and take into account the advice of experienced mushroom growers. But, as they say, experience comes with age. Knowing the basics, everyone will decide for himself how best to grow mushrooms. The grown first crop will please you and your loved ones, and, perhaps, will bring a good income.

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