To understand what are the management functions performed by the manager, one should be guided by the features of this position. There are several such positions within the enterprise - the general manager of the company and those responsible for certain levels of the enterprise and employees.
Some control the operation of the branch, others are entrusted with departments and divisions. Managers are considered to be those who replace people who occupy managerial positions in the hierarchy of the enterprise. All of them should know and take on the basic functions of a leader. Let's consider them in more detail.
Rules for everyone
In our country, a law has been introduced that says that the top manager is the person responsible for the work of the company, managing it, controlling the processes taking place inside. The law defines the functionality of a person who is entrusted with such a position. A feature of the official position is a dual legal status. Often, the leader is perceived almost asorganization, as he is its representative.
Leadership powers are regulated by the Labor Code and civil laws. At the same time, every manager is a hired person who has a predetermined job functionality. He is responsible for the execution of the acts through which the enterprise works.
Because of the duality, the inconsistency of the legal position is born. Any person in a leadership position has the rights of an employee, and they are protected by law. At the same time, normative acts protect founders, shareholders, defend their interests in case of illiterate, incorrect, unreasonable actions of management with a low qualification level.
The laws provide the employer with the opportunity to preliminarily check the qualification level of a person applying for a managerial position. There are several ways and methods by which you can evaluate how a person in the future will cope with the functions of a leader in a team, in various production, work aspects. You can organize a competition, you can send a request to the Ministry of Internal Affairs to provide an extract from the register containing all disqualified persons.
The agreement concluded with the new leader when he is hired has a specified period. Sometimes it is indefinite. It is necessary to take into account the provisions of internal documentation. Often, the maximum duration of an employment agreement with an accepted manager is 5 years.
Prohibited by lawdetermine the probationary period for management personnel. The position of the head is such that when concluding an agreement with an applicant for it, it is necessary to think over in advance all the features of non-disclosure of official information. These rules are included in the document signed by the parties. The contract fixes what will be the responsibility if the person violates the established restriction. For a person appointed to the position of deputy head, it is allowed to establish a trial period of up to six months.
About functionality: basics
There are a number of functions that all managers of any company must perform. It does not matter what level, what is the position of the person, how serious responsibility is assigned to the leader. Even if there is only one person, one workplace in his area of responsibility, key functions still need to be performed unquestioningly and efficiently.
First of all, they include the formulation of the main goals of the department and the definition of tasks, the solution of which will make it possible to get closer to the desired goal. An equally important function is to distribute obligations between subordinates, based on the competence of employees. The management team is responsible for motivating the hired personnel entrusted to its management. Need to motivate people to strive to achieve the goal specified by management.
The classic version of motivation is material. That is, rewarding a distinguished worker with a bonus in addition to the basic salary. An alternative variant of motivation is non-material. In some enterprises, this is implemented throughcertificates, others still practice the honor roll.
One of the important tasks facing management personnel at various levels is the formation of a comfortable psychological climate in the enterprise. The manager's task is to see conflict situations in time and prevent their development. Such a person should strive to resolve differences that arise between workers.
Functionality: more details
Occupying the position of a leader, a person must make managerial decisions. For everything determined by its decisions, it is the management personnel who are responsible. At the same time, the hired manager is obliged to create working conditions such that nothing prevents the workers from investing their time and effort, achieving the tasks assigned to them. Any person can work selflessly, work with dedication, if he is formed comfortable conditions for this.
Leading personnel are responsible for encouraging cooperative labor. Employees who form small teams, groups that unite to achieve their goals, should be awarded additionally if such an association leads to effective and speedy achievement of their goals. It is equally important to encourage the initiative of the staff. Each employee can generate ideas, suggestions, and in the field of functionality of the management staff - to encourage a person to such behavior.
At the same time, the personnel function of the manager, combined with organizational and managerial, involves the creationpunishment systems. This is not necessary in every enterprise, however, in most cases it is required sooner or later. Pen alties are imposed on employees who commit disciplinary violations.
Different and specific
The functions of the head of a structural unit listed above are not a complete list of the classic functionality of the staff responsible for managing the enterprise (its part). The functions inherent in managerial positions are determined by the basic competence. The task of anyone occupying such a workplace is to convince others, to train them, at the same time showing their qualification level.
To do this, you need to have certain skills. To realize their functions, a person must have a sufficient amount of information. One of the manager's tasks is to convey useful information to subordinates that has become available to the leader. Hiding the necessary data, a person contributes to the disunity of the hired. People have less confidence in his actions, which is considered unacceptable for a manager.
Any head of an enterprise is responsible for evaluating the results of activities. To do this correctly, you need to be able to apply different approaches and methods of evaluation. They are practiced by analyzing the results of the work of a particular person, group, department, company as a whole. The task of the management staff is to identify measures to correct the current situation for the better. This is especially true if the department does not keep up with a predetermined plan, the execution of which is likely to greatly affect the stability of the company as a whole.
Yesterday, today, tomorrow
The head of an enterprise is a person who must feel the future. Its task is to abstract in time from the current complexity and think over the methods and ways to achieve the final goal, as well as assess how far the current situation is from the desired result. It is equally important to plan. The task of the management staff is to first formulate goals, then create step-by-step plans that allow them to fulfill their plans.
To make planning effective, you can use modern approaches and programs. For example, many find it convenient to build a tree of goals. An equally effective tool for implementing planning as a function of management personnel is the Ishikawa diagram.
It is important to be able to control and coordinate the workflow. Occupying a leadership position, a person undertakes to ensure the achievement of the reasonableness of joint activities. It is necessary to coordinate the various structural links of the production chain. Managers at different levels are responsible for checking the performance of all responsible persons. At the same time, the communicative function of the leader is important, including that expressed through the delegation of authority.
The effectiveness of the work process of any manager is determined by his ability to delegate routine tasks to persons occupying a lower position in the structural hierarchy within the enterprise. You can trust some of your tasks to deputies. Others prefer to delegate a number of functions to ordinary personnel. Of course, it is important to followthe way employees handle what is entrusted to them.
Functionality and implementation
In order for the communicative, organizational, managerial functions of the manager to be performed effectively, it is necessary to actively use the administrative apparatus available within a particular enterprise. Managerial functionality is implemented by managers, taking into account the level of responsibility of a person. The managerial level defines the content of the manager's work functionality.
Economic functions are quite important. Such have as their main goal an increase in the effectiveness of the working production process by identifying production resources and their use. Accordingly, the economic management functionality is closely related to production functions. Analyzing the economic situation, the manager develops ways to mobilize current reserves, improves economic calculations. The task of a manager is to teach employees to work economically, spending the available resources in an optimal way.
First, an economic analysis is needed, and on its basis any managerial decisions are made. As part of the analysis, enough data is obtained to justify the planned decision. Knowing the methods by which the analysis is carried out, one can become an effective leader, therefore the possession of such information is considered one of the key requirements for the applicant for the corresponding position.
Administrative management carried out by the head is not only strict andtechnical administration of personnel processes, but also the education of hired personnel. The function is implemented through youth associations, party organizations, public unions, which are organized within the company. In many ways, the educational function is carried out through the personality of the person leading the company or its part.
One should not underestimate the role of the head of the company as the educator of employees who trusted him. In many ways, through the educational function, it becomes possible to unite the team and improve the psychological climate. A person can more effectively increase the activity, initiative of those hired, which means that employees will be more independent.
It is important to master the skills of persuasion and build a trusting relationship with employees, based on mutual understanding and respect. If possible, according to experts, the leader should avoid team approaches to solving managerial problems. Thanks to this design of the workflow, operational management can be safely delegated to lower positions, structures, freeing up their resources to work with promising areas.
Speaking about the main functions of a leader, this block cannot be ignored. To understand the issue in more detail, it is worth referring to the works of Mintzberg, devoted to the features of the analysis of the results and content of the work of a manager. In the works of this economist, one can see a detailed and understandable analysis of the manager's workflow. However, the definitions used by the author of the classification today cause disagreement among a number of economists. Not created yeta standardized description of management that would meet the requirements and expectations of scientists around the world.
The main functions of a leader are planning the work process and organizing its implementation, motivating staff and subsequent monitoring of their activities, communication and leadership, as well as timely adoption of responsible decisions. The current practice is that managers are forced to work in enterprises that regularly face difficult competitive market conditions, and this requires special, greater resources, diligence and effort than just performing functions defined by the rules.
Any modern manager who wants success for himself and his enterprise must work for the benefit of the company's productivity and ensure that the efficiency of the work process exceeds that of all competitors.
Levels and functions
When hiring a new manager, it is worth examining the manager's resume, to find out what his experience is like in the past. It is taken into account that the line, hardware departments have slightly different obligations, respectively, different competencies of the person working in them are required. This affects the work of the manager responsible for the departments, part of him. If the area of responsibility of a person is a linear functional, such a leader usually tries to maintain current opportunities and achieve promotion to the highest management strata, performing linear functions.
If we are talking about a hardware function, then a manager who implements it for a long time may encounterpromotion problem precisely because of such labor practices. As a result, many modern leaders are not sufficiently responsible for the hardware obligations assigned to them by position.
When planning to hire a new manager, you need to study the resume submitted by the potential manager. In it, a person indicates where and how he worked earlier. All jobs are divided into managerial, specialist and technical. Leading a unit, a person will have to regularly make decisions and strive to ensure that they are executed, but specialists are only responsible for information support for decision-making. The technical staff must arrange for the normal operation of the other two lines of the state.
Accordingly, when planning to hire someone whose resume contains information only about working in a technical position or as a specialist, you must first responsibly make sure that the person understands the specifics of the work of the management line.
Work: with whom and how?
The main functions of the leader include the formation of a team as a single cohesive entity. The manager's task is to maintain an adequate psychological climate. Building a team is a work in progress. The manager's task is to understand how many people are needed, what positions are required, to prepare employees, to explain to them the practical features of the current work. The leader is responsible for the introduction of new people into the team, ensures the stability of relations between the employed.
Eatseveral manners and ways of management. They are talked about when considering types of leaders and leadership styles. It is customary to talk about leadership and leadership. The first includes mutual work, due to the authority of the manager, trust and sympathy between employees. Leaders are leading, led.
An intelligent person, logical and well-versed in his business, can become a leader. Of the personal traits, courage, authoritativeness, the desire for justice, and sometimes obsession with the chosen business are especially important. From the acquired skills, friendliness and humor, the ability to correctly assess people, situations, risks come to the fore.
Leadership, in turn, represents the management process based on legal authority. There are several styles that you can use. To some, the most promising seems to be an authoritarian one, implemented through orders. The alternatives are liberal, democratic. In the first case, the activity is not too large-scale, the manager waits for instructions from superiors and does not take responsibility for actions.
The latter involves delegation of authority. Employees have the right to participate in resolving issues themselves, and the manager personally takes on only the most important and complex. This approach is considered the most effective, consistent with human nature.