For the effective operation of any organization, a clear definition of the goals and objectives of the activity is required. Based on them, a program is drawn up that helps the company to follow the intended path and rationally spend resources. Plans can be long-term and current, for the entire organization and for its structural divisions. To understand this topic, it is worth understanding what the term "planning" means.
This is a certain type of activity that is associated with setting goals, tasks that will be implemented by certain actions in the future. This concept can also be attributed to one of the most important functions of management. But this function cannot be performed without defining the basic levels of planning.
Stages of planning characteristics
In total, there are four levels on which this concept is based:
- Setting the main goals and objectives.
- Drafting a program to achieve the set goals, as well as determining the levelsprocess planning.
- Identification of all the necessary resources and their sources that will be needed in the process of achieving a goal or completing a task.
- Assigning executors and bringing plans to them.
Here are the levels of planning. The main function is the development and adoption of a specific resolution, which is intended for the one who is the object of control, and a specific task or goal will be set for him. This decision is called (whether oral or written) - a management decision.
Planning can be defined as one of the methods by which management can direct the efforts of the entire team towards achieving common goals. It is with this function that any management process begins, and the final result of the work depends on the quality of the tasks.
The essence of this management function is to provide answers to the primary questions, without which it is impossible to move on:
- Where are we now? When answering this question, one should evaluate all the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in the main areas of its functioning. This is primarily the financial side, marketing, personnel. After analyzing these areas, we can already talk about what prospects the organization has.
- What do we need to achieve? At this stage, it is necessary to assess the capabilities of the organization, determine the levels of planning management, as well as shortcomings. On their basis, it is necessary to determine the main goals for a given period of time,and what could become a threat that will prevent their achievement.
- How will we achieve the intended results? This stage determines the list and algorithm of actions by which members of the organization achieve their goals.
Only by answering these questions, you can build a clear planning system.
Experience shows that many managers charged with systematic planning are reluctant to do so. It's all about the tendency to act, rather than sit in one place and analyze. Many people think that planning is boring and tedious, so you can not develop any strategies, but immediately start taking immediate action.
Another problem faced by those who have to improve management systems, whether they are entrepreneurs or managers, is the issue of inconsistency between the company's development program and the mechanism for its implementation. This is called a strategic gap. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to solving this problem, so there are specific methods that can bridge the gap. For example, you can refer to the book by M. Coveney called "The Strategic Gap: Technologies for Bringing Corporate Strategy to Life".
The author in his work describes a multi-stage process, which is precisely aimed at implementing the organization's development program by integrating the best business management techniques with the latest information technologies. The main task is tois to create such a mechanism that will connect the strategic performance indicators of its activities through a system of cause-and-effect relationships with initiatives and specific actions aimed at implementing this program.
There is also growing support for global information technology planning. The number of software products is growing daily. New systems of both domestic developers and foreign applications are constantly appearing.
What is the role of planning in management?
The task of the organization in this process is to determine its actions for a certain period of time, as well as to take into account their nature and sequence. Experts note that management and planning work in close connection with each other. The effective work of one is impossible without the other. The main function of management is aimed at achieving the set goals, which, in turn, are determined by planning.
However, this process must be constantly monitored in order to ensure maximum efficiency. To summarize, planning is designed to accurately formulate the main goals and objectives of any organization, enterprise, and so on. And also distribute them between departments and performers and determine a clear sequence of actions to solve them.
What are the levels of the planning system?
In any organization, the goals program hasa certain number of required levels. There are three in total. These are strategic, operational and business planning. Let's analyze each of the levels in more detail, because on their basis the successful achievement of goals is built.
What level of strategic planning can be? This is the initial stage at which the long-term goals that the organization will strive to achieve are determined. To properly set them, you must first identify the mission of the company. It is in the process of its definition that the most important issues are raised, because you need to understand the meaning of the existence of the organization, its necessity and benefit for society. Strategic goals define exactly what needs to be achieved on a global scale and how this can be done.
The program does not go into details, but reveals only a general method to achieve the desired result. The set of strategies focuses on the dynamic nature of the processes that take place in society. Usually one of the paths is basic, but the rest are implemented only in certain situations. The main task of the strategy is to set the direction and indicate the boundaries of the implementation of the main activity of a certain business planning, and we can also talk about creating a basis for the daily setting of tasks.
Go to the second stage. The task of this level of planning is to link activities aimed at achieving certain results with the resources received. The first thing worth mentioning is the competentfinancial distribution. In parallel, a plan for the use of human, information, and intellectual resources should be assessed and created. At this stage, you can already see whether it is possible to achieve the intended result. Also, in the process of implementing the program, general ideas are transformed into clear indicators.
Operational planning level
Let's move on to the third stage, at which a generalized vision of goals and prospects goes to the stage of solving daily tasks. The basis of operational planning is to specify the actions, procedures, deadlines, real costs. The difference between this level and others is that program indicators are measurable and easier to control and manage.
The human factor plays a big role here. At this stage, the work done is actively analyzed and plans are adjusted. Only a comparison of the operational program, analysis of its implementation gives a correct picture of the management of the organization's activities.