Planning and economic departments (hereinafter PEO) are created for the effective organization of the economy of organizations and enterprises. Although often the work of such departments is not clearly regulated. How should they be organized, what structure should they have, and what functions should they perform?
In any textbook on economics, it is said that the PEO collects economic indicators of the detail of the company, analyzes them and draws up development plans based on the conclusions obtained during the analysis.
If we are talking about a small business, then this function can be performed by the head of the company (or individual entrepreneur), as the scale of activity grows, these powers can be transferred to another person or even a group of people. The larger the organization, the more people in it are responsible for economic planning. For the convenience of work, these people are united in PEO.
PEO has a standard structure. This department is headed by a person whoreports directly to the financial manager, director of advertising and promotion, or even the CEO. It all depends on the structure of the organization of the company as a whole.
There are two types of PEO structural organization:
- An organization in which the jobs of PEO employees are located inside the department.
- An organization in which some of the employees work outside the department (collect information about the work of the company), and some work inside (they analyze the information received and draw up plans).
The last type of organization is typical for manufacturing companies.
The advantage of the first type of organization is that the work of such a structural unit of the company is easy to control. The disadvantage is that the information is not always received by the PEO staff in a timely manner.
If you use the first option for organizing the planning and economic department and its functions, then the following functions should be assigned to its employees:
- obtaining primary data from financial sources and structural units;
- creation of planning methods and management reporting;
- direct creation of management reporting;
- control and analysis of the company as a whole.
The second method of PEO organization is used no less frequently. In this case, the employees of the department should be entrusted with the following functions:
- monitoring the implementation of the developed plans;
- monitoring the implementation of the budget of a particular unit;
- performance analysisspecific unit.
It is important that PEOs working outside their unit are provided with everything they need to further analyze and plan for the economics of organizations and enterprises.
PEO employees can report directly to the head of the department, and the head of any production unit. In the first case, subordination is called functional, in the second - administrative. This is what double submission looks like.
The following functions should be assigned to the economist of the planning and economic department:
- Developing line of business methodologies (both across the firm and within individual departments of the organization).
- Development of basic directories containing performance indicators of the company's divisions.
- Developing a company management policy.
- Development of planning and reporting forms.
- Development of methods for analyzing and evaluating the performance of the firm.
The advantage of this type of organization of the planning and economic department and its functions is that all the necessary information goes to the analysts of the unit without delay. The disadvantage is the weak control over the work of economists who work outside the department, as well as the fact of double subordination of employees.
This way of organizing work can significantly increase the staff of the PEO to an unjustified size.
Example of PEO structure in various enterprises
When it comes to mid-sized companiessize, then most often the PEO in them has the following structure: the head is the head of the department, and three specialists of the PEO are subordinate to him.
If we are talking about a large enterprise, then the structure of the planning and economic department on it is as follows: the head of the department is in charge of the department, the deputy department is subordinate to him, to whom both the chief economist of the department and the leading economist of the department are directly subordinate. Two PEO economists report to the Chief Economist.
Problems of IEE
The tasks of this division of the company include the preparation of the following documents and applications:
- company development plans and forecasts;
- reporting documentation of various nature (one-time and regular);
- necessary references and analytical explanations;
- economic calculations;
- investment projects and business plans.
PEO also has certain functions that should be clearly indicated in the regulatory documentation of the company.
Functions of PEO
Functions of PEO are as follows:
- analysis of firm performance;
- forecasting company performance;
- assessment of the financial condition of the organization;
- drawing up standards for production processes;
- control of the formation and changes in the cost of production;
- price control for products;
- management reporting;
- participation in the formationdepartmental budgets.
All PEO functions are interconnected with the business processes taking place in the company. The following describes the relationship between these concepts.
Relationship between PEO function and business processes in the firm
The main business processes in the company are:
- research and experimental development.
For each of the stages of the company's work, the PEO has its own task.
When working with sales of products, PEO carries out sales planning, control and further analysis. In the production of products, the tasks of PEO are similar.
When the production process is at the stage of purchasing the necessary resources, the PEO also deals with the planning of purchases, their control and analysis of the acquired values and funds. The situation is the same with research and experimental development.
Planning, control and analysis are the three responsibilities of an economist in an enterprise when working with basic business processes. Why do this? To optimize the same processes in the future.
Business processes can also be auxiliary. They are:
- production technologies;
- product quality;
- capital construction of facilities;
What are the tasks of the PEO in this case? The same: planning, control and analysis. In the first case, work is being carried out on the technology for the production of experimental developments, inthe second - over certification, licensing and metrology, in the third - over the maintenance of equipment and energy supply, in the fourth - over the construction of buildings, in the fifth - over transportation costs.
The organizations serving business processes are distinguished, which include:
- work with personnel;
- financial management;
- legal services;
- general administration.
In this case, the duties of an economist at the enterprise do not change.
Regulation of PEO work
Some companies create PEO, but do not care at all about the regulation of the work of this structural unit. No provision is made for the planning and economic department.
If the organization does not regulate the work of PEO in any way, it is urgent to prepare a document that will solve this shortcoming. This document will become the basis for the creation of job descriptions for employees working in the WtE, which will solve the problems described at the beginning of the article.
The standard regulatory document of the planning and economic department and its functions contains the following items:
- General provisions.
- Department structure.
- The main tasks of the department.
- Department functions.
- Work with other structures of the enterprise.
- Criteria for evaluating the activities of the department.
Next, the structure of the document regulating the work and tasks of the planning and economicdepartment.
Structure of the document regulating the work of the IEE
The General Provisions section contains general information about this unit. Specified:
- the purpose of creating a department in accordance with the economic policy of the enterprise;
- basic terms;
- a person appointed by the head;
- documents that this department is guided by in the performance of its duties.
The "Department Structure" section contains information on the structure of the PEO and its quantitative composition.
The section "Key tasks of the department" describes the key tasks of the EEO, as well as the lists of reports and plans that its employees must submit to management for consideration.
Main tasks of PEO
The main tasks of the planning and economic department, which should be indicated in the regulatory document, include:
- Work on economic planning, rationalization of economic activities.
- Developing a company development strategy in order to quickly adapt business activities to constantly changing market conditions.
- Conducting a comprehensive economic analysis of the financial and economic activities of the enterprise.
- Statistical accounting of all indicators of the functioning of the company.
- Technical and economic planning of activities of other departments of the company.
Main PEO functions
The main functions of PEO, which are usually indicated in the regulatory documentation, include:
- Economicplanning the work of the company, aimed at rationalizing business activities.
- Preparation of draft plans for activities of other departments of the company. The preparation also includes justification for the conclusion of certain contracts, supported by calculations.
- Drawing up plans for the production, financial and commercial activities of the company for different periods (short, medium and long term).
- Informing company departments about current plans.
- Conducting a comprehensive analysis of the company's activities in all areas.
- Monitoring the implementation of current plans by departments, as well as timely reporting.
- Create rational records that slightly increase the bureaucratic burden on employees.
This is not a complete list of the main functions that the planning and economic department is required to perform.
A specialist in the planning and economic department, within the framework of his job description, has the right to:
- request from authorized representatives of other divisions of the company the data necessary to control and analyze their activities;
- create expert working groups whose task is the economic planning of the organization;
- within their competence, participate in business negotiations with representatives of other firms and organizations, sign contracts;
- organize the analysis of new programs and scientific projects of the company for their effectiveness andexpediency of development;
- make proposals on issues that fall within the competence of the IEE in the form of projects.
Interaction, responsibility, evaluation
The regulatory documentation governing the work of the PEO often contains sections that specify the interaction of the PEO with other structures of the organization; responsibility for all actions committed by employees of the department; Evaluation of the activities of the IEE.
In the section “Working with other structures of the enterprise”, only an introduction is made according to the template: “In the course of its activity, the department interacts with the following structural divisions (these divisions are listed below)”. When transferring, everything depends on how broad powers are planned to be given to PEO employees.
In the section "Responsibility" it is indicated that the head of the IEE takes full responsibility for the work of the department; the degree of responsibility of employees is established in accordance with their job descriptions; all employees and the head of the PEO are personally responsible for the documents drawn up by them and the operations carried out in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
In the section "Criteria for evaluating the activities of the department" two criteria are prescribed:
- Timely and high-quality implementation of tasks.
- Quality performance of immediate duties.
You can specify other evaluation criteria.
This completes the drafting of the regulatory document. Naturally, it must be formatted in accordance with the design rules.similar papers: all data must be signed and stamped, and dated.
Control of PEO operation
Controlling the work of the PEO one of the following employees:
- chief financial officer of a firm (in a large company);
- CFO (in a small or medium company);
- chief economist (in production).
Control of PEO activities is carried out for the following purposes:
- Prompt execution of one-time tasks.
- Compliance with reporting and document flow, in accordance with the internal regulations of the company.
- Ensuring the reliability of the provided calculations and reporting documentation.
- Analysis of work in order to identify the effectiveness of the functioning of the IEE.
Every textbook on economics says that PEO is a really necessary structural unit of a company. Without it, the efficiency of many enterprises and organizations is significantly reduced. Although not all companies have PEOs set up properly.
Somewhere the functions of the department are not clearly defined, somewhere the tasks of employees. In some firms, there is a difficult situation with the subordination of PEO employees. Although planning in a market economy is the most important process.
To fix the problem, it is necessary that the head of the firm clearly understands the answers to the following questions:
- What is PEO?
- What is its structure?
- Does this company need it or its function canexecute one person?
If a decision has been unequivocally made to create a PEO, then it is worth immediately proceeding to the execution of regulatory documentation, where, in addition to the general provisions, the following will be written:
- department structure;
- rights and functions;
- work with other structures of the firm.
If you follow these recommendations when designing the planning and economic department and its functions, then the company will have an effective structural unit.
Indeed, if the work of this unit is clearly established, then its specialists are able to optimize all production processes without harm to the activity. Translated into the language of money, this means that having an efficient PEO allows you to spend less resources and earn more.