Improving, humanity is constantly facilitating its work, shifting it to artificial intelligence. Robotization of production made it possible to get rid of a number of professions, for example, telephone service today is carried out only by electronics, although at the beginning of the last century, female telephone operators connected two subscribers. Today, progress has stepped even further, and people have begun to create real artificial machines capable of performing certain mechanical operations - robots.
What is robotic manufacturing?
This process should be considered as a component of industrial automation, when human capacities are replaced by robotic systems on an industrial scale. Most often, large enterprises try to use universal robots that can positively affectoperation of the whole complex. Their main advantage lies in the fact that they can be reconfigured at any time for the manufacture of completely different parts and products, it is enough just to enter another program into the equipment. By using this kind of robotics, many businesses are able to achieve significant savings.
The process of robotization of production plays a huge role in enterprises involved in the processing of various parts. Up to 50% of products are produced here in fairly small batches, and if there are no robots on industrial lines, then the creation of products itself will take about 5% of the entire working day. The rest of the time will be spent on reconfiguring equipment, replacing parts and tools. Such a functioning of production is not beneficial to any enterprise, since each of them pursues the goal of increasing productivity. Automating the creation of parts has another positive effect - robots can save a large amount of materials and raw materials, but everything here depends on the rational organization of the workflow.
What kind of robots are used in enterprises?
In the manufacturing sector, there is the concept of "industrial robot", which refers to a specific device that has a certain number of functions and is able to work on 5 or more programs. The main task of the robot is to perform the assigned tasks, namely: the manipulation of tools, parts and additional materials.
Experienced professionals talk aboutthe existence of at least three generations of such equipment. The first generation includes programmable robotics, which can only execute a given program. To the second - adaptive robots that had sensors and with their help could receive information from the environment, analyze it, and, if necessary, correct their own tasks and behavior. The third generation consists entirely of intelligent robots that are able to distinguish between environmental objects and perform certain actions on their own. As a rule, when it comes to robotization of production, the company that started it is expected to purchase the most modern equipment.
Industrial robots are also usually divided according to their direct functionality. Some of them perform tasks for the manufacture of products, others perform the work of lifting and transporting products, others maintain the main production equipment, etc. Robotics in some cases can perform auxiliary functions, in particular, cleaning the premises.
All robots involved in industry are the basis of robotic technological complexes (RTC). The latter are a combination of equipment and are most often used to carry out larger operations - capturing a product, performing tasks in extreme conditions (for example, under water), providing information on the progress of related production processes, etc.
Where is automation needed?
Robotization of production should replace human resources, which are more oftenare used to create products and move them. Most often, the mechanisms used are assigned the simplest tasks, which they constantly perform several times a day. The use of robots is indispensable when packing products, loading and unloading, as well as transferring products between different production sites. So far, there are difficulties with the creation of parts, since only very expensive equipment can accurately reproduce parts according to the drawing, and its use is still not economically viable for many enterprises.
If we talk about where robotization of production has been successfully introduced in the past, an example of this can be enterprises engaged in welding, cutting, conducting control tests, etc. Robots are also actively used for simple assembly operations, more difficult processes are still performed by people, since they require additional manipulations. The key task of industrial automation is to give at the mercy of technology simple processes that are repeated several times. Where possible, robots are purchased frequently and last a very long time.
What are the benefits of using robots?
Owners of large enterprises have a positive attitude towards robotization of production, they consider the pros and cons of this process especially carefully, since they have a direct impact on profits. If we talk about the advantages of using robotics, then first of all it is worth mentioningperformance. A robotics company has one undeniable advantage - its workshops can work non-stop for hours on end.
With a rational organization of production automation, the amount of monthly production can be an order of magnitude higher. It is very important when robotizing to prevent frequent changeovers of equipment, otherwise the amount of profit received can be reduced significantly. In addition, replacing human resources with robotics can significantly save on wages. To perform all processes, one operator is enough to control absolutely all systems.
The need to create high-quality goods is another business need that forces enterprises to resort to robotization of production, the advantages of using such equipment are the high accuracy of the parts obtained. In the adjusted process of creating parts, the amount of rejected material is significantly reduced, in many respects this becomes possible due to the elimination of the human factor.
It is worth noting the fact that work in some production areas is extremely harmful to the human body, and this is where robotics is simply irreplaceable. We are talking about welding, steelmaking, painting materials, etc. The robot installed in the workshop has its own working area, which is shaped so that a person cannot enter it.
Quite oftenstudents writing the WRC "Robotics of industrial production" notice that the use of artificial intelligence can significantly reduce the workspace. In some cases, robots can be hung up or even stowed indoors until next use. Equipment used in industrial plants has modern gearboxes and motors, wear-resistant materials are used to create it, and therefore it requires minimal maintenance.
What disadvantages can be seen in this upgrade?
The rather high cost of equipment is a significant drawback in the robotization of production, examples and disadvantages of such a change in production capacity can be traced in almost any enterprise. For example, the cost of replacing one machine ranges from 500 thousand rubles to several million, and this process requires preliminary financial preparation. If the equipment suddenly breaks down, you will have to look for money for repairs urgently, which is not very convenient.
Another disadvantage that is most often encountered in the modernization of production is the reduction of personnel. Robots are designed to perform low-skilled work and replace people in this post, but enterprises are not always able to offer their employees an adequate replacement in the form of a new position. According to experts from the World Economic Fund, robots will “force out” more than 5 million people on the planet from their jobs in the next two or three years.of the year. Such a number of unemployed will need to be accommodated somewhere, and even now the largest states of the planet are trying to find the most optimal solutions to this issue.
Developed countries are actively introducing robotization of production, they constantly discuss the pros and cons of this process at international economic forums. As a result of these meetings, new options for automating workflows are being formed, as well as ideas aimed at organizing new jobs for employees left out of work as a result of the introduction of artificial intelligence.
What are the stages of robotization?
Introducing artificial intelligence into operation in any enterprise consists of four stages, the first of which is technical preparation for changes in production lines. Here it is necessary to take into account absolutely all the features of the company, which will have a certain impact on the new equipment. Some organizations use economic and mathematical design, the purpose of which is the introduction of computers for technical mathematical calculations in all departments. The analysis of the activities necessary for the preparation of robotics is carried out manually, so it is not possible to immediately achieve savings, competent optimization and high product quality. If the lion's share of production is serviced by artificial intelligence, then a combination of all of the above qualities is much easier to achieve.
Automation and robotization of production is never complete without the formation of a controlling management, which is alwaysconsists of three components: a management structure, a communication system, and a measurement and information organization. This division of the organization should be sufficiently flexible and versatile, be able to quickly respond to changing business needs, and also monitor compliance with all criteria specified in the program. When choosing a system that will control the work of robotics, it is necessary to take into account its accuracy, cost, versatility, as well as a number of other parameters.
You should pay attention to the fact that the cost of the control component is approximately 60% of the price of an industrial robot, which is why its choice must be approached with particular care. Some enterprises, unfortunately, choose the cheapest control systems - analog and cyclic, this justifies itself only when the company is engaged in the production of mass goods and it is rarely necessary to reprogram equipment. If you need to create small-scale parts, it is better to use numerical and positional control systems that can be easily reprogrammed.
Next comes the most important stage - direct programming. Robotization of modern production provides for four stages of control over the work of artificial intelligence: cycle formation, program memorization, reproduction and direct execution. Particular attention here must be paid to programming, which today is carried out using two methods -analytical and educational. The first one involves calculations and debugging, after which the operation algorithm is entered into the control system. The second is the creation of a control program already in the working room using a special remote control, which is part of the equipment. Experienced experts advise using both options to achieve the highest quality effect from robotization.
The final stage is the launch of automated production at full capacity. It is very important to ensure that the production lines work as efficiently as possible, only after all the necessary tests have been carried out, robotics can be put into operation. Please note that in the first few hours it is necessary to test the available capacities and make the necessary adjustments.
How do robots help with welding?
The era of the introduction of artificial intelligence began with the robotization of welding production, with its help it was possible to achieve significant results. Automated industrial machines in the 1970s were reoriented to spot welding, and since then this has become their main line of business. Since the beginning of the use of robots, the quality of welding has increased several times, which has benefited the industry. Today, the profile from which the parts are made and the junction do not play any role, artificial intelligence is able to connect absolutely everything.
Robotics in welding production continue to gain momentum in the 21st century, today useddevices have additional sensors capable of processing incoming tactile and visual data. All robots are able to weld two metal surfaces and obtain a high quality weld in a stable arc. Industrialists believe that in the future such equipment can be used for laser welding, as well as for additional cutting of the material being processed.
Can robots be used to create food?
As humanity is constantly increasing in numbers, the question of how to feed everyone is becoming more and more urgent. Robotization of food production can come to the rescue, allowing you to create new high-quality products in the shortest possible time. There is a point of view among experts that robots will be increasingly used in this area, and sooner or later they will even replace professional chefs.
Progress has stepped so far that today artificial intelligence is able to independently process curd products: cut, sort and even pack, while the strictest sterility is observed in the production. Confectioners are especially fond of using robotics, with its help it is possible to create original and accurate drawings on cakes and pastries, as well as to package the resulting products, which saves a lot of time resources. Robots are also used in the fishing industry, where they help cut the catch into portioned pieces, which is very convenient for cooks working in the catering industry.
Roboticsfood production should affect those areas where employees of enterprises are exposed to dangerous and harmful environmental influences. We are talking about changes in temperature, humidity, noise, increased vibration and dust. However, experts do not exclude the possibility that robots will create food products from scratch, but such artificial intelligence will not be developed soon.
How do they automate work in our country?
If we talk about the robotization of production in Russia, here it is just beginning to gain momentum. Most of the devices are used in welding and loading operations, as well as in the automotive industry. The number of companies using artificial intelligence is increasing every year, as their owners have realized all the benefits of implementing automation. As of 2018, there is only one robot per 10,000 people in Russia, however, by 2025, experts predict an increase in the number of robotics in the domestic industry by 20%.
Special attention deserves the fact that the vast majority of working Russians have a negative attitude towards robotics. On the one hand, they can be understood, because the use of robotics can mean the loss of a job for someone, but on the other hand, scientific and technological progress is designed to facilitate the existence of mankind and cannot be abandoned. However, full robotization of production capacities in Russia is still far away, so full automation will not happen in the coming years.
The government, meanwhile, is thinking aboutWhat benefits can the robotization of production bring, Moscow is now actively developing a new generation of artificial intelligence, which will be sent into space in the future. The capital annually hosts a conference, "RoboSector", where everyone can get acquainted with the latest developments of scientists in the field of production automation, and business owners can discover new opportunities.
How is the world market doing?
Robotization of production in the world has long become commonplace, according to statistics, as of January 2017, there are more than 70 robots for every 10 thousand employees on our planet. The highest number of robots are used in South Korea with 631 per 10,000 workers, Singapore with 488 and Germany with 309. Analysts say Asia and America are the most affected by workflow automation, with robots increasing by 9 and 7 percent each year, respectively.
The record holder for the introduction of robotics is China, if in 2013 the average density of devices was 25 units per 10 thousand workers, then by the end of 2016 this figure had grown to 68 and continues to increase. By 2020, the authorities of the Celestial Empire intend to enter the top states-leaders of robotization. South Korea has been the country with the highest density of robots since 2010, they cannot do without them when creating cars and electronics.
Anti-record holders for robotization of production as of 2018 are Russia, India and the Philippines. In thesecountries, the robotics market is still developing, so equipment manufacturers are actively offering their services to potential customers. Representatives of the engineering and automotive industries are showing great interest in the use of artificial intelligence, since its implementation will significantly relieve the human resources of companies.
Experts believe that the success of many enterprises in the future will depend on the robotization of production, the scope of automatic machines is constantly expanding and requires more and more development and research. In their opinion, automation should not be set as an end in itself, artificial machines can be introduced only in those situations where a person, for one reason or another, cannot do a job better than them. The stabilization of the technical process, the increase in the accuracy of manufactured parts and the speed of achieving goals are all just a small part of the reasons forcing enterprises around the world to introduce robots into production.