Not every soil is fertile enough to grow a good crop. All kinds of mineral fertilizers help to achieve results in such cases. There are a lot of them, for different plant varieties and soil types. The market is filled with products of large companies, such as Meleuz Mineral Fertilizers, for example, but there is also room for competition. What do you need to know about this product? What are the types of fertilizers? How to start a business for their production? Dealing with all these issues is not so difficult.
What is this?
As a rule, mineral fertilizers are s alts, which contain the elements necessary for the growth and development of plants. These are inorganic substances that strongly affect the chemical, physical and biological processes in the soil, transforming the solubility of its nutrients and changing the microbiological composition. Plants receive all the necessary elements through the roots and grow more actively, which is why the overall productivity of a fertilized field or meadow increases markedly. Correctly using, for example, the products of the Balakovo Mineralfertilizer "can achieve an excellent effect. Not only productivity will improve, but also product quality. So, in spinning crops, the technological properties of fibers increase, in sugar beet, berries and fruits, sugar content increases, in cereals, protein content increases, and in sunflower oil content. Most farms use domestic chemical products, such as the popular Russian company Voskresensk Mineral Fertilizers, as well as a small amount of natural s alts: potassium, sodium, or Chilean, s altpeter and industrial waste. The amount of substances used per hectare of land is carefully controlled and determined by the regulations.
Types and purpose of fertilizers
These substances have many different classifications. So, according to agronomic purpose, direct mineral fertilizers and indirect ones can be distinguished. The former contain those elements that are needed for direct plant nutrition (magnesium, sodium, copper and phosphorus). Indirect are used to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and usually include gypsum.
In addition, the first type can also be divided into two groups - these are complex mineral fertilizers and one-sided. The latter contains only one nutrient. These include ammonium, calcium, sodium nitrate, urea, superphosphate, precipitate, potassium chloride, potassium s alt and microfertilizers. Complex mineral fertilizers contain several elements. These include ammophos and nitrophos.
As for the release form, there are threethe type of supplements mentioned. So, there are solid, granular or powder substances (there are, by the way, the most). As an example, we can cite the products of the same company Voskresensk Mineral Fertilizers. Another type are liquid products, such as ammonia water or ammonia.
The following classification distinguishes between alkaline, neutral and acid fertilizers. The composition of the former is distinguished by anions, which are easily assimilated by plants, and cations, which alkalize the soil. The latter do the opposite. Finally, neutral ones do not affect the state of the soil solution in any way.
Demand in agriculture
The effect of such products becomes more noticeable when using technological cultivation of crops: with stable irrigation, taking into account the norms for a particular soil and plant variety, when using organic additives. Most often, mineral fertilizers are used in the spring, when sowing is underway. In addition, they can be used in the fall. Additional nutrition for plants can be provided by top dressing during the growing season. Using responsive varieties guarantees maximum results. Mineral fertilizers can be applied in different ways: it can be broadcast using aircraft or seeders, and with a plow, harrow or cultivator, and local, in holes or rows. Seeds can be treated with liquid substances before sowing by soaking in a solution or dusting.
Benefit or harm?
Some soils are severely deficient in one element or another.Artificial introduction of it is a good way to improve the situation. It should also be borne in mind that there are mineral and organic fertilizers, and if the former can be dangerous, the latter are completely harmless to the environment. So if you're afraid of chemicals, use natural materials like manure, peat or compost. When used correctly, they are safe for both plants and people. Harm arises only from their overabundance. So, the soil with a high content of peat becomes too oily for the crop, and manure can simply burn the seedlings. But this will not affect the he alth of people in any way. Only mineral fertilizers are dangerous. For plants, or rather, for accelerated growth and ripening of the crop, s altpeter and urea are often used. These are nitrate mixtures of nitric acid, they are especially harmful. The fact is that nitrogen s alts enter the human body from plants, turning into nitrites in it, which can cause poisoning and even provoke cancer. Therefore, in some countries this type of recharge is prohibited.
What substances do plants need during growth?
One can argue a lot about the dangers of mineral fertilizers, but even natural components are absorbed by plants only after decay into an inorganic form. Therefore, in a sense, it does not matter what exactly to fertilize the soil - with humus or s altpeter. In order not to harm your crop, it is worthwhile to figure out what exactly a plant may need at different stages of its existence and development. During seed germination and up tobefore the formation of inflorescences, sprouts need nitrogen most of all. It is needed for the formation of plant tissues, for which it serves as a kind of building material. During the development of buds and buds, phosphorus is most important for plants. And when the plant prepares for winter, potassium becomes the maximum value. Of course, in any of these periods, other substances are also needed, and it is impossible to divide the life cycle into clear intervals of exclusively nitrogen or phosphorus consumption. But nevertheless, knowing this feature of plant organisms, you can apply top dressing more competently.
When is fertilizer useless?
Not always the introduction of additional substances into the soil can produce the expected effect. Even if you have taken into account the life cycle of the plant and used the most suitable fertilizers, the result may disappoint you. What are the most common mistakes gardeners make? Most often, the lack of effect is due to the fact that the fertilizer was applied to completely dry soil. Another mistake is the wrong timing for feeding. Some fail to correctly diagnose the plant visually and select the right substance. Fertilizer can also be applied in a form that is indigestible, or in too much or, conversely, not enough. Finally, a poor harvest may not be related to top dressing at all. Plants can simply get sick or be attacked by bugs, in such cases the situation cannot be improved by fertilizer alone.
Advice on the proper use of chemicals
To make the use of mineral fertilizers passsuccessfully, you need to follow a few simple guidelines. First, use substances in a complex, not trying to limit yourself to organics or, conversely, ready-made store mix. Secondly, use any remedy in moderation. Even manure is valid for three years after a single application, not to mention mineral fertilizers! Chemistry in unlimited quantities will kill plants or lead to their diseases. And thirdly, when choosing complex products, make sure that they contain both micro and macro elements. Well suited liquid preparations "Giant" or "Humistar", as well as granular or powder "Agricola" or "Orton".
It's a good idea to send a soil sample to a lab for analysis before using fertilizer. There they will not only tell you what substances are missing, but they will also help you choose the plants that will grow best for you. If a deficiency of a particular element is found, use fertilizers with that particular substance, but do not use it all season. A few times will be enough.
If you want to make your own mix, there are a few rules to follow. Urea is not compatible with ammonium nitrate; in no case should nitrophoska be mixed with potassium chloride. Such mixtures can not only lose their benefits, but also acquire harmful properties.
The number of applications for each crop is different. This question needs to be clarified for all plants, because applying fertilizer to the eye can be dangerous both forenvironment, and for human he alth.
Finally, the weather also matters. On a warm day, fertilizers are absorbed faster and better. If this weather lasts for a long time, the next top dressing can be done in a week. But on cold days it is better to wait two. Then you will be able to avoid the accumulation of nitrates in your vegetables and fruits, and also get a bountiful harvest.
Nitrogen fertilizers as a business
It used to be assumed that the production of such chemicals would require an exceptionally large enterprise, but at the moment it is quite possible to open a small firm. The small mineral fertilizer plant is notable for its rather high profitability and allows the production of a number of popular additives. On modern equipment, it is best to produce small batches of make-up from ammonia. It is the main raw material for nitrogen fertilizers. Previously, this substance was obtained at metallurgical enterprises as a by-product of coke processing. At the moment, ammonia is produced from oil waste. That is why, if possible, it is better to place an ammonia fertilizer plant near oil refining centers or gas pipelines. For the transportation of raw materials, specialized tanks and steel tankers will be required. If the transportation distance is short, an ammonia pipeline can be built. High requirements are also placed on the storage of raw materials. This will require either cylinders or ground tanks.
Seasonal classification of fertilizers
You can choose the right remedy andusing a calendar. Just pay attention to the percentage of nitrogen in the supplement. Fertilizers containing more than five percent of it are suitable for use from the very beginning of planting until the fifteenth of July. After this date, you should choose products with a nitrogen content of less than five percent. This scheme is suitable for growing any perennial ornamental or fruit crops. If you are growing annual vegetables, you will need a different scheme. Here, it is no longer necessary to focus on the amount of nitrogen, since such plants, in fact, are only in the growth stage, and the process of preparing for winter is not at all relevant for them. If you plan not to use, but to produce such fertilizers, and the amount of equipment does not allow you to produce a wide range, consider this scheme and make mixtures according to the seasons. This way you won't have to deal with products that won't sell well.
What is best to produce?
The most popular are those nitrogen mineral fertilizers, the price of which is affordable for everyone, and the effect is noticeable without much effort. These include s altpeter, with which you can increase the acidity of the soil. Another common option is ammonium sulfate from nitrogen and sulfur, which comes as a crystalline powder in white, yellow, or pink hues. Urea is also considered one of the best fertilizers. It is produced in the form of granules or small crystals. The amount of nitrogen in it reaches forty-five percent. In addition, nitrogen fertilizers also include sodium and calcium nitrate, with the help ofwhich alkalization of soils is carried out. The production of any of the listed types of supplements is quite possible in the format of a small enterprise, and there is a demand for all these products.
Separately, it is worth considering the cheapest and most common fertilizer. Ammonia water does not require complex technical operations for its production. Labor costs are also minimal because the entire process can be fully mechanized. The resulting liquid is very high-performance, so the demand for it is always stable. This fertilizer is a 25% solution of ammonia in water. Its advantage is that it is suitable for any type of soil and any crop. It is good to use ammonia water for pre-sowing cultivation, for fertilizing tilled plants and for basic land cultivation. It is required to store this product in special steel tanks with airtight lids. The only problem is the need to use special equipment for transporting and applying fertilizer to the soil. Without a cultivator, ammonia water cannot be used. Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that such agricultural machinery is quite common, so this drawback can hardly be called serious. So, starting a fertilizer business with ammonia water is quite safe and cost-effective. And if the plant pays off only within two years, then such activities can start generating income even earlier.
Production of organicfertilizer
To reach the wider market, you can also try to win over the supporters of natural ingredients. In parallel with the production of chemical fertilizers, start the production of biohumus. This is a budget tool, the production line of which is quite easy to set up. You will need earthworms and organic waste. Organics processed in this way are considered very beneficial for the soil and are popular with those who do not accept the use of chemicals. If you can set up marketing activities well and inform the maximum number of potential buyers about your product, the demand will be quite high, since biohumus is an innovative fertilizer that cannot but attract attention. In addition, such a business will help to establish ties with farms. You will supply them with your products, and they will provide organic waste, such as rabbit droppings, which will be processed by the worms for the next batch of goods.