Gardening is very popular among our compatriots. In order for the cultivation of vegetables, fruits or ornamental crops to be successful, it is necessary to understand the basics of caring for them. It is very important to first study what fertilizers are. This will allow you to correctly select the necessary top dressing and apply them on time.
What is this? Fertilizer classification
It's no secret that plants, like any other living beings, need a large number of elements for development and growth. They are not always able to extract these substances on their own. The lack of micro or macro elements will adversely affect the he alth of the plant. To meet the nutritional needs of various crops, gardeners use fertilizers.
There are a lot of them. Due to the fact that they differ in chemical composition, some characteristics or origin, they are divided into several groups.
- Organic: they are obtained from the processing of plant andanimal waste. These include manure, ash, bone meal, bird droppings, compost.
- Mineral fertilizers: they are chemical compounds. This group includes phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium supplements.
- Bacterial: These preparations contain special micro-organisms that favorably affect the development of plants. As such, they do not contain nutrients. The most popular bacterial fertilizer is nitragin.
- Growth stimulants: These substances have only recently gained popularity among gardeners. They help accelerate the growth of crops. These include preparations such as Mikrassa, Root Mix and Bison.
Next, we will take a closer look at some types of fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers can be made in the same place where you grow a particular crop. These fertilizers have a multifaceted effect on the soil. If used correctly, the yield of agricultural plants will increase significantly. They help cultivate the soil and improve its physical, chemical and biological parameters.
Assignment of organic fertilizers
Below we list what fertilizers are in this group, as well as in what cases they are prescribed.
- Manure has a beneficial effect on the condition of the soil. If you use it regularly, the amount of humus will increase. In addition, agricultural crops will regularly receive the necessary micro and macro elements.Microorganisms contained in manure saturate the soil with nitrogen. Top dressing is prescribed in the spring or autumn season.
- Slurry is manure diluted with water. The substance is 40% nitrogen and 60% potassium. From one large domestic animal, you can get up to 2 tons of slurry. It is most effective when growing fruit crops.
- Bird droppings are prescribed in cases where you need to quickly make up for nutritional deficiencies. It requires the presence of poultry, such as chickens. From 1,000 individuals, up to 5 tons of raw material can be collected, which will consist of 90 kg of phosphate, 75 kg of nitrogen, 45 kg of potassium and 150 kg of magnesium and calcium compounds. Litter is prepared by drying and grinding the raw material.
- Peat is a mineral fertilizer that can also be used for soil mulching. It is prescribed for various crops.
- Compost is a mixture of organic fertilizers. The advantage of this top dressing is that the biological processes taking place in the compost contribute to the faster absorption of nutrients, since they become readily available. This substance is prescribed not only for fertilizing the soil, but also for preparing the soil for planting various crops. However, composting takes a long time: from 3 to 9 months.
- Siderates are special plants that are planted as top dressing. They saturate the soil with minerals. Most often, green manures are cereals andlegumes.
- Straw is a valuable organic mineral rich in cob alt, zinc, copper, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Straw is used in tandem with horse manure. How to apply these substances as fertilizer? Straw is placed in the soil to a depth of 8 cm, after which manure is applied on top of it.
Components of inorganic nature can be purchased at any agricultural store, while their cost is not too high. Moreover, they have a wide spectrum of activity. They contain substances that have a non-carbon basis. Simple mineral fertilizers contain one active substance, while complex fertilizers are a combination of various elements.
Simple mineral fertilizers
So, let's list the names of mineral fertilizers and how to use them.
- Nitrogenous: They dissolve quickly in liquids. They are appointed at the end of winter - the beginning. It is necessary to first study the characteristics of the cultivated plant, since nitrogen supplements are not suitable for all species.
- Ammonia: They contain at least 30% nitrogen. However, they must be used with caution. Ammonium nitrate is ideal for potatoes. Top dressing is inexpensive, but it is quickly absorbed. It is prescribed to strengthen plant immunity and increase yields.
- Nitrate: nitrate nitrate is used to enrich any soil, except for black soil. There is not much nitrogen in it: only 17%, but it is enough for crops to germinate quickly. Nitrates are prescribed onlyplants grown outdoors.
- Amide: These are composed of urea or calcium cyanamide. They enrich the soil with nitrogen, but are not processed quickly, so they are advised to be applied in early March.
- Potassium: they make up for the deficiency of potassium in the soil. Potassium s alt is the most popular, as it is suitable for feeding all types of berry crops.
- Phosphoric: they are divided into several types, among which simple superphosphate occupies a special place. It is suitable for all kinds of soil.
Complex mineral fertilizers
The classification and use of these substances are presented in our article. A feature of such dressings is the presence of several active components in them. Here are some types of fertilizers:
- Nitroammophoska consists of 50% nitrogen and 50% phosphorus. It is prescribed for clay and sandy soils.
- Nitrophoska is a mixture of potassium, phosphorus and sodium. This is perhaps the most popular fertilizer, because it is used to feed all vegetable crops.
- Ammophos is composed of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. It is prescribed for both open ground and greenhouses. Fine crumbly granules are suitable for enriching the soil in which flowers are grown.
- Diammophos is a mixture of phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and other elements. The fertilizer is universal, it is prescribed for all soils and most plants.
Continuingthe topic of what fertilizers are, we will talk about bacterial top dressing. Scientifically they are called microbiological inoculants. They are assigned to all plants, without exception. The principle of their work is interesting: they do not contain nutrients, but, once in the soil, they normalize the biochemical processes occurring there. This, in turn, makes the nutrition of crops more complete. They are divided into several types.
- Biological fertilizers: They make the nutrients in the soil more available. Plants extract them more easily from the ground.
- Phytostimulants: they synthesize phytohormones - substances that activate the growth of crops. As a result, the root system and vegetative mass increase significantly.
- Mycorrhizal inoculants: These fertilizers contain fungi. They act on plants by increasing the ability of the root system to absorb nutrients. This contributes to higher yields.
- Biological remedies: they are used as analogues to chemical preparations. They increase plant immunity.
We complete the story about what fertilizers are, a characteristic of popular growth stimulants.
- Heteroauxin was one of the first to be developed. It has a positive effect on the process of root formation.
- Kornevin is practically no different from the previous drug. Its main feature is that it affects the culture for a longer time.
- Etamon also stimulates the development of the rootsystems at the cellular level, significantly transforming plants and making their organs more receptive to nutrients.
Growth stimulants are prescribed for any plants, but they need to be selected depending on the characteristics of the crop being grown.
How to feed?
It is impossible to give an unambiguous answer to the question "How to fertilize?" It depends on many factors: on the type of plant, the growing season, the composition of the soil. Therefore, you need to consult with a specialist in advance on how to use compost, peat, manure or any other substance as a fertilizer. Remember: a lack or, conversely, an excess of micro and macro elements in the soil can lead to the death of plants, so you need to carefully study the issue of fertilizing.