Any organization on the territory of the Russian Federation is obliged to keep accounting, tax reporting, provide the necessary information for non-budgetary funds and state bodies (depending on the type of its activity). Therefore, an important aspect that needs to be paid attention even at the start of activity is the accounting policy of the enterprise. Let's analyze what it is, what sections, methods, procedures it can be represented, what fundamental principles it must comply with.
Accounting policy of an enterprise is a set of accounting methods chosen by an organization. In particular, primary observations, cost measurements, current groupings, as well as the final summary of the results of financial, economic activity for one reporting period.
Enterprises develop their own accounting policies, based on the specific conditions of activity. Current regulations also predetermine the possibility of using alternative accounting techniques.
Incarnation inthe life of an independent and economically sound accounting and accounting policy of an enterprise allows you to increase the efficiency of using monetary, material resources, accelerate capital turnover, find and apply additional financial opportunities.
Accordingly, at each stage of the economic development of the organization, a certain accounting policy is chosen. This is a responsible choice as it cannot be changed during this reporting period.
The purpose of the company's accounting policy is to enable consumers of accounting information to judge the state of affairs in the organization as objectively as possible. Accounting policies adopted by companies should disclose financial information as much as possible not only to internal but also to its external users.
Therefore, the most important elements of the accounting system must be described in detail in the reporting. Indeed, in order to analyze the financial status of an organization, draw conclusions on the state of its affairs, you need to know how certain accounting indicators were formed, which contributed to their change.
To realize the purpose of such an accounting policy in practice, it is necessary to observe a number of mandatory principles.
The accounting policies of an enterprise are as follows:
- Use of double entry methods in accounting for economic activities and property of organizations. This is done in accordance with the Chart of Accounts. The point is that each of the economictransactions will cause changes in at least two accounting records. For example, if cash was received at the bank, then there is more cash already at the company's cash desk. And the balance on the company's current account will be reduced by the same amount.
- The invariance of the chosen accounting policy throughout the reporting period, as well as during the transition from one accounting year to the next. The accounting policy of an enterprise (small, medium, large) can be changed only in specific exceptional cases: reorganization (merger, acquisition, division), change of owner, change in Russian tax legislation, the system of regulations governing accounting in the state, development of new methods of its maintenance. Naturally, changes to such a plan must be justified. They are confirmed by the execution of accompanying administrative documentation. Such changes must be brought to the attention of external consumers of information.
- Business transactions for the reporting year are reflected in accounting in their entirety.
- Revenues and expenses should be correctly allocated in relation to accounting periods. If incomes were received and expenses incurred in a particular reporting period, then they relate only to it, regardless of the date of the actual receipt of money or their payment.
- Split costs into operating costs and capital expenditures.
Principles of the accounting policy of LLCs, enterprises should not contradict the current Russian legislative framework.
Choosing the right option
What is this talking about? The formation of the accounting policy of the enterprise is directly related to the economic policy of the organization. Therefore, there are several options:
- Regular conditions. Here, the accounting and accounting policy of the enterprise are aimed at ensuring long-term existence, obtaining a sufficient amount of profit, conducting expanded reproduction, and meeting the cultural and social needs of workers in the organization.
- Inflation, price liberalization conditions, unstable credit policy, heavy tax burden. Accounting and economic policies are aimed at optimizing costs, minimizing the necessary tax payments.
- Certain periods of company development. The conquest of new markets for the sale of the company's products, the development of new variations in production, expanding the list of services provided. Here, when choosing an accounting policy for an organization, enterprises need to take into account that additional investments may be needed, that there will be a need for additional expenses, that various difficulties in the financial plan may arise.
Accounting policy of the enterprise and accounting are closely interconnected. How? It covers three components of accounting:
- Organizational. The policy characterizes the construction of the accounting department in the company.
- Technical. The form of accounting is determined.
- Methodical. into herthe following components are included: methods for assessing liabilities and property, depreciation, cost accounting, methods for calculating profits, the formation of funds with a special purpose, the creation of reserve funds.
Samples of accounting organization
Let's present further samples of the accounting policy of the enterprise - several variations of the organization of accounting:
- A proper chief accountant is being introduced into the staffing table of the company. Accordingly, this responsible person is further engaged in the preparation of accounting reports. Then they are endorsed by the chief accountant and the head of the organization.
- The positions of workers who keep primary records are introduced into the staffing table. As for the preparation of accounting reports, this is done by specialized audit companies or specialists with the necessary qualifications on contractual terms. Accordingly, the reporting will be certified by the head of the company and authorized representatives of the audit service. In the second option - the head of the company and a specialist working on a contract basis.
- The company's staff list does not provide for an accounting department at all. Accounting in this case is carried out from and to on a contractual basis by a third-party audit company. Accordingly, the accounting will be signed by the head of the firm and a representative from the audit company.
Responsibility for the chosen accounting policy, as well as for the organizationaccounting is carried out by the head of the company. The chief accountant of any institution / organization / enterprise is prohibited from accepting for execution and subsequent execution of documentation for the following operations:
- counteracting the current norms of Russian legislation;
- violating both the contractual and financial discipline of the employing company;
- without written permission for this action from the manager.
Here, the head of this institution, enterprise or firm bears the full responsibility for the unlawfulness of the committed actions.
It is also necessary to decide on the accounting policy technique in the organization:
- Using a standard (for large, medium-sized organizations) or abbreviated (for small businesses) chart of accounts.
- The need to use sub-accounts, which may differ from the recommended chart of accounts.
- Application of systems of accounting registers, their construction, sequence, recording technique, interconnection of these registers.
- The timing of the inventory for certain items: fixed assets, masses of material assets, receivables, regular vacations, etc.
- Credential processing technology, the need to use computing/computer equipment for this.
When choosing an accounting method, it is important to decide on the following:
- Methods for estimating productionstocks.
- Formation of groupings of material assets according to sub-accounts.
- Methods of procurement, accounting and acquisition of we alth.
Accounting policy for tax purposes concerns the following important issues:
- Methods for recognizing profits and expenses to determine the purposes of calculating income tax. Cash method and accrual method can be used.
- Inventory pricing method.
- Methods for calculating the depreciation of fixed assets of the company and its intangible assets. There are two of them - linear and non-linear.
- Reserve opportunities.
- VAT calculation methods. There are two options here - for payment and for shipment.
As for the international standards of accounting policy, they are developed by the CMSU (decryption - International Accounting Standards Committee). The Committee was created in 1973 based on an agreement between accounting representatives:
KMSU activities are regulated by the Council, which includes representatives of 13 states and four organizations that are interested in developing accounting standards.
Russian regulatory documentation
In the Russian Federation, the accounting policy in the fieldAccounting regulates the following:
- FZ "On accounting" №402.
- Regulations on Accounting RAS 1/2008.
If this is an accounting policy for the purposes of tax accounting, then it will be formed on the basis of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation.
Accounting policy of an organization is a set of tax and accounting methods chosen by it. The economic position of the company, the efficiency of its use of material resources depends on the correctness of this choice. There are several options, methods, methods and models for the formation of such a policy.