The skill of planning in any field of activity finds its application. This is especially true for large organizations and enterprises, which involve dozens of departments and hundreds of employees. For example, program-target planning can be applied even at the level of the entire state and individual municipalities.
It is better to start getting acquainted with any new term by formulating its exact definition. Let's do just that.
So, what is goal-oriented planning and what is its essence?
This information will be especially useful to those who work in the field of management and hold other managerial positions.
First of all, you need to understand that this is one of the varieties of planning, which differs from the rest in that it is aimed at achieving the set goals.
On the one hand, it seems that absolutely any planning is aimed atspecific goals. However, the program-target method is unique. In its application, first they are engaged in the formulation of goals and only after that they develop possible ways to achieve them.
In fact, the whole scheme of the program-target planning method fits into only four major stages:
Everything starts with setting goals to be achieved. Further, as if in a draft version, sketches are created, formulating possible ways of achieving it. Further, it all comes down to finding specific ways and means to implement a program aimed at achieving the goals that are formulated at the initial stage.
Programme-target planning involves the use of a systematic approach to solve any strategic task.
It allows you to engage in the formulation and subsequent solution of rather complex tasks that are at the junction of several industries and different levels of government. That is why it is necessary to carefully think over and organize the mechanisms that make it possible for such entities to dock.
The essence that program-target and strategic planning hides in itself implies an integrated approach, since, as a rule, the interests of several subjects are involved in achieving the goals set. None of them can achieve this goal alone. That is why they are supposed to be combined into a singlemechanism.
Program-targeted planning, as mentioned above, is aimed at achieving the set goals.
The essence of the method is as follows.
- Identification of all components of the formulated problem, as well as the study of their relationships.
- Formulation of specific goals, the achievement of which will ultimately lead to a solution to the problem.
- Establishing a mechanism to evenly distribute resources to prevent shortages or surpluses.
- Creating a system to manage the implementation of the developed program.
- Monitoring the effectiveness of ongoing activities.
So, based on the formulated components, it is easy to conclude that the use of program-targeted planning has its own characteristics. Among which are a systematic approach to solving the problem, as well as the sequence of planned actions. With such a competent organization of the process, it is possible to most accurately predict the result.
Program-targeted planning and management differs from other methods in that it allows not only to predict the result, but to draw up a detailed program aimed at achieving it. That is, in fact, this method is aimed at real actions, and not making theoretical forecasts. Its task is not just to observe the situation of development, but also to influence the consequences, which significantly increases the chances of achieving the planned results and goals.
Nextthe peculiarity that program-target planning hides in itself is the way it influences the developed plan. The main object of attention is not the system itself, but the process of managing it and its constituent elements.
So, the key concept of this method is a program, which implies a whole range of different activities aimed at achieving the planned goals. This type of planning differs from other methods in its effectiveness. That is, this is not just a theoretical plan, but the actual impact on economic and other indicators that form the basis of the set goals.
Program-targeted budget planning, like its other varieties, can be based on various methods. The role of methodology in the field of forecasting is difficult to overestimate. This is due to the rapid changes in economies and other areas of human activity to which the term "planning" applies.
So, in fact, all the methods used are divided into two large groups.
- Forecasting methods that include heuristic and economic-mathematical methods.
- Planning methods, including methods for the preparation and subsequent implementation of plans.
Let's talk more about each of the above.
Their essence is subjectivity. Since they reflect the point of view inherent in the one who is engaged in theoreticalforecasting. This applies, as a rule, to sociological and expert methods.
The first ones are used to determine the current situation in the state as a whole or in the market for certain goods. The latter act solely as a supplement to other methods of program-targeted budget planning, as they have a serious drawback. They are subjective and provide poor accuracy due to subjective evaluation.
Economic and mathematical methods
Assume the use of objective observation, as well as measurement of indicators. Further, based on the information obtained in this way, thanks to calculations and mathematical modeling, a forecast is made.
It is worth mentioning separately about statistical methods, which are inherent in any planning method, including the method we are considering.
Methods for preparing plans
Mathematical programming methods are often used to develop plans, which include the following options.
- Tasks relating to the development of the most optimal production plan. Their essence involves determining the most promising plan in terms of volume, even in the presence of a limited amount of resources.
- Logistics tasks are aimed at developing the most optimal transportation plan, in which the program executor bears the minimum transportation costs, while allowing the achievement of the goal and without causing any damage to the final result.
In addition to the above mathematical method, when preparingplans may also involve game theory.
Methods for implementing plans
Assume the development of plans of the two types listed below.
- Directive, that is, assuming precise, flawless execution. Their peculiarity lies in the unambiguity and compliance with the existing capabilities of the subjects involved or a particular object.
- Indicative, suggesting guidelines for economic development. Such plans do not require precise execution and may vary depending on the specific implementation conditions.
It is worth noting that program-target planning, as a rule, involves a combination of the above methods. For what purpose?
In general, planning methods cover a narrower concept than forecasting. Since the former involve the development of a plan in one or more versions, followed by approval.
State target-oriented planning
It is worth noting that the term we are considering is relevant for use at different levels. If we operate with economic concepts, then we are talking about microeconomic planning, when it comes to a separate organization, and macroeconomic, when it comes to the economy of the entire state.
In the latter case, the above method is considered one of the most common and at the same time effective. It has all the characteristics discussed earlier. That is, the plan is developed based on the goals of further development of the economy, and thenfind funds for them and determine the most effective and efficient ways to implement them.
Municipal target planning
Before him, in fact, set the same tasks as before the state. In particular, this concerns the placement of new enterprises, interaction with migrants, the development of new territories and depressed areas, etc.
In fact, all the methods that include state and municipal economic development are divided into several groups. Let's list them.
- Indirect. This includes tax, credit, and customs policy.
- Straight. This is financial regulation in the form of social subsidies, subsidies, subventions.
- Control over production activities. These are product orders, quotas and compulsory licensing.
- The program-target method of planning and management involves the preparation and subsequent implementation of programs aimed at developing priority economic areas. I must say that this method includes all the others, and therefore is considered the most effective. It allows you to achieve what none of the above methods alone can do.
The essence of the term program-targeted planning is that it allows you to reject the main economic, social and scientifictechnical goals aimed at the development of society and the state as a whole. At the same time, it is necessary to develop specific measures aimed at achieving the planned goals, set precise deadlines and control the process of implementing previously planned actions.
The program-target method of planning requires a documentary base. If we are talking about the state, then socio-economic development forecasts are used as a documentary base, which contain effective measures aimed at further development of the state economy.