As the children's proverb says: "All professions are needed, all professions are important." Of course, this is true. It is difficult to imagine the life of a modern person without work in any profession. Even seemingly the most useless work makes a huge contribution to the life of each of us. What is the classification of professions?
Classification is a meaningful division of certain things into groups and types according to certain characteristics. The concepts of "profession" and "classification of professions" are closely related. A profession is a kind of activity of a person who owns a complex of special theoretical knowledge, as well as skills acquired as a result of training and practical exercises. Depending on the type of activity, professions lend themselves to grouping. The classification of professions according to the subject of labor also plays an important role in the division. This issue will be discussed in detail in this article.
Types of classification of working professions
The world of professions is diverse, there are more than seven thousand items in it. In 1957 there wasadopted the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), created by the joint efforts of representatives of UNESCO, the UN and the World He alth Organization. This is a kind of division of professions into groups. The process of division into groups can proceed in different ways, depending on the trait taken as a basis. This could be a classification:
- According to the first letter of the name of the type of activity (in alphabetical order for example).
- By the nature of labor (intellectual or physical).
- By sector of the economy (industry, science, construction, livestock and crop production, forestry, transport and communications, he althcare, management, trade, and so on).
- On the basis of material production (for example, agriculture, industry, forestry, construction, and so on. He alth, science, trade, media, etc. have no material production).
- According to the level and nature of the required qualifications: highly qualified (financial auditor, chemist, broker, engineer and others); qualified (insurance worker, personnel officers, administrator, appraiser, technologist and others); low-skilled (postman, store worker, and so on); unskilled (janitor, street vendor, cleaner, courier and others).
Everything has its flaws
Each of the above classifications of professions has its drawbacks.
The first option is inconvenient because there are a lot of areas of activity (about seven thousand), and each one should be distributedin alphabetical order will be difficult, and in the end you will end up with an incredibly huge list.
The disadvantage of the second method is that the enumeration automatically erases the boundaries of mental and physical labor.
The third method has two drawbacks:
1. There are professions that belong to several sectors of the economy (for example, a locksmith. The field of activity is common in several sectors of the national economy).
2. Inaccurate as some activities spill over into other areas (e.g. school nurse, he althcare worker but still working in a scientific field).
The fourth way is also debatable. Every profession is related to production, only in one case these are material things (for example, the sphere of industry, construction), and in the other case these are intangible values (for example, science, the media). Regardless of whether it is possible to "feel" what is being produced, every field of activity is important for humanity.
The fifth case also has its own nuances. Often there is such a situation when a person is a jack of all trades, and really does his job with high quality, but he cannot be accepted into the state, because there is no "crust" about education. At the same time, a graduate student arrives who actually knows nothing.
Division of professions by working conditions
There is also a classification of professions according to working conditions. It includes only four types:
- Microclimatehousehold type. This is a profession whose employees work indoors in familiar conditions (or office work). For example, a programmer, accountant, doctor, teacher and others.
- Outdoor work. The worker spends most of his time outdoors, not indoors. For example, a sales representative, a postman, a janitor, a forester, and others.
- Small enclosed spaces, cabins. Most of the worker's time is spent in a small room. For example, driver, concierge, operator, and so on.
- Unusual working conditions. Unusual working conditions include underground work, work in water conditions or at high altitude. For example, a miner, an industrial climber, a mountain rescuer, a diver and others.
In any case, depending on how you want to classify the types of professions, any of the above methods is chosen. But about this in order.
Psychological classification of professions
What are they like? In addition to the above options for classifying professions, there is another way of psychological division into groups. The division of activities into groups according to the psychological principle is intended for career guidance. This type of distribution is important for the theory of labor psychology, as well as for understanding the role of psychological factors in a particular type of labor.
Psychological analysis of labor activity in any profession is an integral part and the primary stage of work in the field of labor psychology. analysis favorsas the foundation on which any further research is built.
The variety of professions sets the task of classifying professions, identifying common features and differences between professions and activities for labor psychology. The psychological study of certain types of labor activity is called a description of professions (professiography), and the result obtained is called a professiogram. The professiogram includes a number of characteristics related to the types of work: technical and economic, social, psychological, and hygienic working conditions. The result is influenced by a combination of personality traits and mental processes that are activated during a certain type of labor.
The concept of professionally important features
Professionally important qualities are individual traits of a person's character and personality, mental and physical qualities that meet the requirements for a person occupying a particular position in the profession.
There are five important features of a professional:
- Attitude towards profession, work, interests related to this field of activity.
- The moral image of a person as part of a team.
- Capacity related to a certain position (flexibility of mind, resourcefulness, ability to develop oneself - intellectual sphere of activity; physiological development, endurance - for physical labor).
Single, private, special abilities, if any, required for the required position or profession in general.
- Knowledge, skills, abilities andexperience in a similar position.
A new kind of occupational classification
Klimov Evgeny Alexandrovich, academician, specialist in labor psychology, professor of psychological sciences, made a lot of discoveries in the field of psychology and did not disregard the psychology of labor. In 1970, he patented his classification of professions according to the subject of labor, which is still used today. His subject-activity concept of professional labor is extensive and captures almost all professions, dividing them into certain groups. According to Klimov himself, each person is able to find the profession in which he will be comfortable, and labor activity will bring pleasure. With the concept of Klimov, you can draw up an approximate formula for the desired profession, as well as determine the job of your dreams.
Distribution of Klimov's professions
The correct compilation and further use of professiograms requires certain knowledge in the use of classification. The most common for career guidance is the classification of professions according to Klimov. According to the object of labor, five types are distinguished.
Man - Nature
This type includes people whose labor activity is connected with the animal and plant world, as well as microorganisms and the conditions of their existence. The worker of this profession sees the world from the side of biological development, innovations and losses in this area. Representatives of the professions of thistypes are able to create and adjust the conditions for the life and development of living organisms, while using a variety of technical means. If we take into account agriculture, then not all remote places are equipped with the necessary equipment, so physical labor in this area also takes place. And also do not underestimate the intellectual aspect of this classification of professions. Since working conditions are non-standard, it is often necessary to notice the most subtle, but very important changes in living organisms. The requirements for an employee of this structure are also non-standard: from special skills (for example, drawing, so that you can fix what is visible under a microscope) to managing equipment. As for professional qualities, the employee must love nature, have perseverance in achieving goals, creative thinking and patience. The professions of the sphere "Man - Nature" include: veterinarian, agronomist, biologist, beekeeper and many others.
This type includes activities related to the repair and maintenance of technical devices and their operation, as well as the creation, installation and assembly, design and construction of devices and technical systems, individual parts of the mechanism. Observation, acute hearing and vision are among the main professional qualities of a worker in this field. Also, for successful work, accurate and high knowledge in the technical field is required. Occupations of the "Human-Technic" type include a locksmith, a repairman, a driver, a technician, and others.
Man - Sign System
The object of labor of this type of classification are signs - numbers, formulas, oral and written speech, drawings, drawings, maps and so on. The basis of working activity is intellectual labor, with the help of which all kinds of systems of signs are created. The professional qualities of an employee of this type of profession are perseverance, attentiveness, the ability to concentrate for a long time, love for solitary work. Professions of the "Human - Sign System" type include a programmer, system administrator, accountant, stenographer, radio operator, draftsman, cutter, editor, and others.
Man - Art Image
The objects of labor of workers in this area are artistic images formed in literature, fine arts, music and acting. The goals of this profession are to create beauty, bring harmony to the world around us, preserve the cultural heritage of mankind and create aesthetics. A professional in this field must have an undoubted innate talent, love for beauty and art, artistic taste and a rich imagination. Professions such as "Man - Artistic Image" include an actor, photographer, artist, journalist, and even a jeweler.
Man is Man
Workers in this type of profession work directly with people. The main task is to interact with people or serve other people. Certain types of occupations are interconnected by the essence of the work, although the labor itselfactivities are completely different. The purpose of this classification of professions can be treatment, training, management, information, etc. The professional qualities that an employee should have are communication skills and a culture of communication, understanding the mood of a person and his needs, developed cognitive activity, friendliness, listening skills and stress resistance. The professions of the "Man - Man" type include a teacher, a policeman, a doctor, a salesman, a service worker, an insurance agent and many others.
The choice of future profession should be taken very seriously. Without the love of work, the love of life will be lost. When choosing the type of profession according to the classification, you can understand what exactly you need.