Beet harvesters - agricultural machines for harvesting sugar and fodder beets for their subsequent processing in production. This equipment is equipped with high-precision attachments and functional processing systems. Due to the presence of built-in units, the beet harvester is able to independently process the harvested crop and send the prepared raw materials to enterprises for further processing. These are machines with a supporting frame on pneumatic wheels and sophisticated attachments that allow you to collect, clean and pre-process beets.
Types of beet harvesters
Beet harvesting can be carried out according to two different patterns depending on the type of beet harvester:
- Pulling type. In this process, the roots are removed from the soil with tops in a pulling method. Then the tops are cut already in the car. This type of beet harvester is being phased out in modern agriculture.
- Harvestersbeet harvesters with a preliminary cut of tops. The scheme of operation of such machines is as follows: first, the tops are cut off with knives under the root, and the root crops themselves are extracted with a special digger. Most modern machines work according to this beet harvesting scheme.
Beet harvesters can be self-propelled or trailed. The last option, which is cheaper and less productive, does not have complex systems, and is used mainly on small areas of crops. In modern agriculture, self-propelled machinery is increasingly preferred. These machines are more productive, do not require the involvement of large personnel, additional equipment and are capable of performing a whole range of work.
Modern beet harvesters, trailed or self-propelled, have different technical characteristics depending on the model and modification, which are adapted to certain conditions. When choosing a model, characteristics are selected in accordance with the volume of the crop, the nature of the soil, and the harvesting conditions. High-performance diesel engines with a volume of at least 7 liters and more than 250 liters are installed on the agricultural harvester. With. The capacity of the installed power unit depends on the working conditions, from normal to difficult, in addition, it must provide optimal traction characteristics. For work in difficult conditions with the use of large trailed mechanisms, special versions of combines with an increased wheel chassis and engines with a capacity of more than 500 hp are used. With. On modernmodels are equipped with automatic systems for controlling the engine speed depending on the load on the working bodies. The average weight of beet harvesters varies within 12,000 kg. The characteristics of hinged systems may vary depending on the type and ability to upgrade. The amount of fuel consumed individually depends on the manufacturer and model. Transmission and gearbox are selected according to working conditions and load rate.
Design features of beet harvesting equipment
According to the classification, the beet harvester belongs to heavy all-wheel drive equipment with pneumatic drive and hydraulic transmission. Each unit is equipped with a conveyor belt, a receiving hopper, a processing unit with special knives for cutting off excess. Depending on the dimensions, for ease of operation and ease of maintenance, lifting ladders can be equipped on the frame of the harvester. Industrial sugar beet harvesters are made on the basis of a powerful carrier frame, to which drive axles are attached. The operator's cab is located on a high platform in front of the machine, which greatly increases visibility during operation. A design feature of the special equipment is the fastening of the front working body with a system of knives, grippers and rollers directly to the frame with rigid fixation.
Beet harvesting with a combine can be done with the installation of various types of mounted and trailed devices. This equipment is option alto the main worker and is aimed at increasing the overall productivity of beet harvesting equipment in a certain working area and reducing harvest time. As additional devices, additional receiving hoppers or hoppers of increased volume, trailers for transporting beets are used. Installing reinforced wide knives allows you to cover a large area in one pass. In the winter season, additional starting devices are used.
Multifunctional beet harvesters are equipped with modern adaptive control systems that greatly facilitate the work of the operator-driver. Control devices allow you to monitor any changes in the operation of equipment, the state of the main components and, if necessary, change the operating mode or carry out maintenance in a timely manner. Skills and training on other machines of this class are enough to control the equipment. In the management of modern beet harvesters, a number of key features can be distinguished: simplicity and informativeness of control, high motor resource, ease of maintenance, versatility, a large selection of additional equipment.
A large number of different agricultural equipment is presented on the world market, including those for harvesting beets. Beet harvesters of different brands and manufacturers have individual characteristics and are adapted to different working conditions anda specific consumer. Among the most popular manufacturers are: Ropa, Kleine, Holmer, Caterpillar, Agrifac, Beetliner. The greatest demand is for universal harvesters with fastening mechanisms for additional attachments. This multifunctional equipment makes it possible for the agricultural producer to save money and reduce the cost of production.
Features of the Ropa technique
German manufacturers of agricultural machinery Ropa annually present new design solutions. The beet harvester "Ropa" is economical in terms of fuel consumption during the active collection of root crops. The functionality of these machines even has a special economical mode of operation. Reducing fuel consumption, in turn, allows the agricultural producer to reduce the cost of production. To work on large acreage and difficult conditions, the Ropa combine can be equipped with additional units of impressive dimensions. To increase the efficiency of harvesting, agricultural machines of this German manufacturer are equipped with stubbers with the ability to operate in rows of different widths and the function of controlled haulm cutting. In addition, a special trolley has been developed for the Ropa harvesters for transporting wide-cut attachments along the roads. This device is easy to control on turns and descents. The trolley is equipped with a brake system.
Features of Kleine technique
GermanThe Klein beet harvester stands out for its advanced technical features. The entire line of beet harvesting equipment of this manufacturer is characterized by a large capacity of the receiving hopper, multifunctional attachments. Thanks to the successful placement of wheel axles, Kleine combines are distinguished by a short base, which has significantly increased the machine's cross-country ability in the field. Most models of this brand are equipped with wider front tires. The operator's cab is located in the center of the carrier frame, which provides better visibility and a sense of the dimensions of the machine.
Maintenance and breakdowns of the harvester
Almost all beet harvesters have design weaknesses that can cause malfunctions. The maintenance of combines mainly depends on its type and model. Modern imported models, due to the presence of complex electronic, pneumatic and hydraulic systems, are quite demanding in terms of maintenance and service. For such equipment, observance of the maintenance schedule is mandatory. Domestic cars are less whimsical. Their minor repairs and replacement of consumables are successfully carried out in garages. One of the common mistakes in the maintenance and repair of both domestic and foreign equipment is the use of non-original consumables and spare parts. All technical work must be carried out in specialized garages using high-precision equipment by qualified specialists.