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Wood processing technology and production of wood products
Wood processing technology and production of wood products
Anonim

Wood is an unusual and especially valuable material. For all its familiarity, it has an amazing set of technical and physical properties that a person cannot repeat with the help of synthetic substitutes. This is the reason for the extensive use of blanks from this material in various industries.

Modern technologies for wood processing and the production of wood products in general make it possible to provide people with furniture, building materials, decorations, utensils, etc. Carpentry still requires certain skills and talents from performers - only in this case, the manufacturer can create a truly valuable product.

What kind of wood is used in production?

Wood processing classes

The modern woodworking industry works with blanks of variousorigin, which differ in technical, functional and aesthetic characteristics. These can be traditional species like oak and pine, and exotic ones - wenge, morado, rosewood, etc. Directly in Russia, about 30 species are in demand, most of which in one form or another find their place in construction. Nevertheless, each industry has its own requirements for blanks, which also determines the division of wood into classes. For processing, in particular, the classification of the material according to the qualitative state of the structure matters:

  • Class III. The workpiece has an uneven color and layer pattern. There may be partial flaws and defects like falling knots, but they are not of fundamental importance for reliability, from the point of view of the intended application. Another thing is that the commodity class of products made from such a tree will be low.
  • Class II. There is also uneven coloring and minor flaws on the surface. With proper processing, the manufacturer can get outwardly decent material, but it is hardly necessary to count on high decorative properties.
  • Class I. Smooth, solid and natural in color blanks that are in a suitable condition for almost all types of processing and directions for further use. Restrictions are determined only by the characteristics of the tree species to which the workpiece belongs.

What is wood processing?

Production of wood products

From forestry material is not immediatelysent to the production of end products. Up to this point, the logs go through several stages of special preparation, during which the semi-finished products necessary for specific tasks are formed. Depending on the type of wood processing envisaged at the stage of primary processing of raw materials, the following blanks can be obtained:

  • round timber;
  • boards;
  • veneer;
  • beam.

Preparation operations in most cases mean cleaning and sawing in several ways, but depending on the requirements for semi-finished products, preservative and protective operations using chemical impregnations, varnishes and paints can also be performed. However, the chemical methods of influencing wood blanks will be discussed below.

Machining

The oldest, but still relevant woodworking method, which is available to almost everyone. In the process of work, a physical impact is exerted on the workpiece in order to change its shape. Technologists use the special quality of the wood structure in the form of its ability to divide along the fibers. For example, this property is successfully used when chopping firewood. This is the simplest kind of manual processing of wood, but in the conditions of the production process, of course, there are more complex tasks. The advantages of this method include environmental friendliness, efficiency and speed of processing. But, from the point of view of the technical organization, this is a rather complicated and expensive method when it comes to large production lines.

Processing technologieswood

Basic mechanical woodworking operations

In order to give the workpiece the desired look, it must be processed with the necessary parameters. In practice, woodworking industries implement dozens of operations of this type, and many of them are performed on the same multifunctional lines. The processing of wood on a lathe alone may involve boring, countersinking, drilling, reaming, and other work activities. In a wider scope, transactions of a different format can also be represented:

  • sawing;
  • cutting;
  • trimming;
  • grinding and polishing;
  • planing;
  • hollowing;
  • milling;
  • thickening.

Machining equipment

As great as the variety of mechanical woodworking operations is, the range of technical means by which these works are carried out is just as wide. The most popular are units for providing wood turning technology, during which cylindrical parts of the desired shape are obtained. The turning operation can also be performed manually, when the operator holds the working tool in his hands without using a holder, but most often modern machines of this type operate in full automatic mode.

Mechanical processing of wood

Among other types of equipment for woodworking, milling, panel saw, jigsaw, circular and slotting machines can be distinguished. Yet again,manufacturers strive to combine several functions on one bed, so most factory units provide for the implementation of several operations - just change the operating mode of the electric motor and update the equipment.

Biological treatment

This is a special group of woodworking methods, the purpose of which is to obtain agricultural raw materials. Waste from woodworking factories is used as starting materials - for example, sawdust, shavings, wood chips. Biological mechanical processing of wood is organized in special workshops with tanks, where fermentation processes are organized. Special bacteria, fungal spores and even some insects are used as activators. As a result, such processes of artificial destruction of wood make it possible to obtain fodder materials, ethyl alcohol, xylitol, furfural and other derivatives of microbiological synthesis necessary for agricultural activities.

Biological wood processing

Chemical treatment

One of the main disadvantages of wood material is its low service life, which is reduced in adverse operating conditions. It is to maintain viability with the preservation of technical and physical properties that the chemical method of wood processing is designed. The production of wood products and its semi-finished products necessarily provides for the organization of separate technological sections where a set of protective procedures is carried out.

It can manifest itself in various forms, including the application of paint and varnishcoatings and impregnation. The means of processing used also differ. For example, the fire resistance of the material is given by means from the group of flame retardants, and the application of antiseptic substances prevents the development of harmful microorganisms, which, in turn, can trigger undesirable processes of the same biological destruction.

Types of joinery

According to the general classifier, the following types of woodworking industries are distinguished:

  1. Production of lumber with a thickness of 6 mm or more.
  2. Production of straw, cork and various materials for weaving.
  3. Production of panel materials. Mechanical wood processing in this case is especially closely associated with chemical protective impregnation, which allows, with a fine structure, to provide high wear resistance to the product.
  4. Production of materials for flooring - this group includes lamellas, parquet boards, logs, etc.
  5. Production of wood sheets, wood flour, wood chips, etc.
  6. Large format production. The work of such enterprises is connected with the manufacture of beams, beams, boards and other structural elements that are used in the construction of load-bearing foundations of wooden buildings.

Principles of wood products production

Chemical processing of wood

When organizing the production woodworking process, a professional manager initially sets several guiding principles for the workers, according to which the technologicalprocess. The principles of this kind in carpentry include:

  1. Functionality. The product must correspond to the anthropometric dimensions of a person, this also ensures its ergonomics and ease of use.
  2. Rationality. When detailing, the product designer accurately calculates the smallest characteristics, which allows using a minimum of funds to achieve the goals.
  3. Exploitation. Of course, the processes of wood processing and the production of wood products in a broad sense should focus on giving the final item an optimal set of positive "working" properties, including strength, durability, maintainability, aesthetics, durability and reliability.

New technologies in the production of wood products

Recent changes in this area are associated with the active introduction of automated and even robotic processing and assembly lines. Even the simplest circular machines today can be provided with CNC and other means of "smart" control, which improves the quality and speed of production processes. The principles of machine operation are also changing. For wood processing, large enterprises use laser machines, multifunctional four-sided modules with high-precision cutters, etc.

Production with woodworking

Conclusion

Approaches to the processing of blanks from wood raw materials cannot but change against the backdrop of ever-increasing requirements for end products. Demands are increasing not only in the construction sector, wherewe are talking about responsible building materials, but also in the household segment. Even small decorative and furniture items today must withstand fierce competition in the market, which forces manufacturers to look for more efficient methods of wood processing.

The production of wood products is an industry in which specialists from different fields work. These are not only representatives of technical professions, but also designers with carvers and artists. Only in such a community of craftsmen can one count on obtaining a product that compares favorably with its structural and aesthetic qualities to an equally high degree.

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