Over the past fifty years, for various reasons, our country has lagged behind foreign manufacturers in the field of microelectronics for a large number of years: Russian microcontrollers no longer meet the requirements of new technologies. Recently, this gap has narrowed somewhat, but the gap is still large. Domestic developers mostly prefer not Russian microcontrollers, but devices from the x51 family, which are produced by different companies. For example, Microchip products, if we talk about those that have long established themselves on the market. There are also new, but also quite popular: AVR microcontrollers from Atmel. This group is currently the leader. All other devices on the market are lagging behind. However, the number of consumers and Russian microcontrollers is gradually increasing. And it makes me very happy.
Until the collapse of the USSR, the leading microelectronics enterprise in Russia, producing integrated circuits, was the Mikron plant. Now thisThe Russian company, founded in 1967, is part of the RTI holding and is owned by AFK Sistema. Initially, Russian microcontrollers at this enterprise were produced by the Research Institute of Molecular Electronics (NIIME).
PJSC Mikron today is a group of companies. Judging by the information on the official website, this also includes JSC Svetlana-Poluprovodniki, VZPP-Mikron. The company has representative offices in Taiwan, China, and assembly is carried out in Shenzhen.
In Soviet times, the Angstrem and Mikron plants (Zelenograd) almost completely satisfied the demand for USSR microcircuits, although these products did not reach world standards.
The road to quality
Work was carried out with products larger than a micron, nanotechnology was still far away. Nevertheless, it was Mikron PJSC that became the pioneer in our country in the development and implementation of analog digital integrated circuits for mass distribution. This is how it happened historically. Today, the plant produces more than seventy percent of the total electronics exports.
Of course, now the conditions for work are completely different. And in the seventies, the Mikron plant in Zelenograd became a pioneer - new methods for manufacturing microcontrollers were created. For example, the structure of the microcircuit was worked out using the "epiplanar" technology - lateral insulation with a dielectric. Also, the first technological process in our country was brought to perfection -"isoplanar" - the manufacture of an integrated circuit with oxide insulation. Ion doping was used, plasma-chemical methods for manufacturing domestic microcontrollers were introduced. The plant actively worked not only for the general consumer, but also for the military-industrial complex and space.
PJSC "Mikron" from the very beginning was a leading plant in this industry. The country's first "clean rooms" were created here. Integrated circuits were produced on an industrial scale for supercomputers. A high-speed universal set of the 1802 series (Russian microcontrollers - analogues of AVR) for air defense systems was developed. It was these products that provided the space programs "Venus" and "Mars". In 1984, the plant completed the most important order of the country: it created and put into production the Unified Computer System, for which it was awarded an order together with NIIME. In the nineties, new technological developments continued, along with the modernization of production. The latest BiCMOS technology was developed, and at the same time the plant began to independently enter foreign markets. For example, already in the nineties, Samsung began to purchase integrated circuit chips.
In 1994, two microelectronics enterprises in Russia, Mikron and NIIME, merged. They began to position themselves as one company. By the mid-90s, another "clean room" was created, where the production of products much closer to world standards was started:an integrated circuit on silicon wafers one hundred and fifty millimeters in diameter, where the design norms were 0.8 microns.
A few years later, the products received worldwide recognition and an international certificate from Bureau Veritas Quality International, which served as a certificate of compliance of these quality management systems in accordance with ISO 9000. In 1997, NIIME and Micron merged into the Scientific Center concern, subsequently OAO Sitronics Microelectronics. Three years later, a subsidiary of ZAO VZPP-Mikron was established in Voronezh.
Since 2006, an investment project has been implemented aimed at large-scale modernization of production. A complete closed cycle was organized - a plate with chips. Mainly in the field of telecommunications - the production of SIM cards for this industry. Further, the plant received from the Franco-Italian STMicroelectronics technology for the production of a topological level of 180 nm. The production of chips for smart cards, transport tickets, including those for the Moscow metro, has begun. It should be noted that until 2010 the Mikron plant worked according to near-micron standards. In 2007, the state invested more than three hundred million rubles in the enterprise to start production of 180-nanometer chips. Equipment was purchased from around the world.
In 2009, the state company "Rosnano" joined the work, a special production site was created for serial production of circuits with 90design nanometers. Financing continued - now it has reached 16.5 billion rubles. The goal is the development of new products and the development of technologies to the level of 45 nm and even less.
However, in 2012, new products (IC dies) had a topological level of 90 nm, which also increased production capacity - 36,000 wafers per year. In 2012, a domestic universal card chip was developed, and in 2013 its production began. At the same time, the production of chips for a biometric passport was launched. And in 2013, Rusnano sold its part of the shares, the concern was reorganized and became subordinate to OJSC RTI.
Achievements of recent years
By the beginning of 2014 JSC "NIIME and Mikron" received the development of the latest technology for creating circuits of 65 nanometers, the first normally working crystals were obtained. However, mass production still did not happen. Work continues. In 2014, Rusnano returned to ownership of the company. The production of domestic dual-core microprocessors using 90 nm technology continued. The enterprise became a supplier of transport tickets (electric trains, land transport, metro), labels of its own design for Goznak Federal State Unitary Enterprise (marking of fur products), microcontrollers for biometric passports of Laos (the first international project). In 2016, the factory issued bank cards for the Mordovian "KS Bank" (NSPK "MIR").
Now the factory produces integrated circuits of six to eight layersmetal FAB-200) according to design standards up to 65 nm and chips of "planar" and "bipolar" technologies (FAB-150), where one or two layers of metal, and design standards range from 1.6 microns. The plans for 2018 included the development of 45-28 nm nanotechnologies with the construction of new lines for this purpose. Huge investments were required from the state - more than one and a half billion dollars. No news on this topic yet.
In the same place, in Zelenograd, another production of this industry was organized in 1993. PKK Milandr JSC is a much younger enterprise than the Mikron plant. It did not require huge funds for the reorganization of production. The company immediately began to implement projects for the development and subsequent manufacture of microelectronics: processors, controllers, transceiver circuits, memory, voltage converters, as well as electronic modules of universal properties, commercial and industrial devices, software for microelectronic products and information systems.
This company was the first in Russia to obtain a license for the ARM microprocessor core and use it in microcontrollers under development. Initially, integrated circuits were produced here according to design standards up to 28 nm, microcircuits, including imported ones, were tested, highly accurately measured and tested, equipment blocks and electronic modules were produced. In addition, electricity meters, electronic components for special-purpose equipment, as well ascivilian (this applies to software). In total, there are more than four hundred types of various products in the nomenclature line today. These are 32-, 16-, 8-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers, ROM and RAM (memory chips), as well as radio frequency, interface, specialized.
The company owns more than seven hundred square meters of industrial and office space and the most advanced hardware programming tools for the design and testing of integrated circuits. The specialists of the enterprise are highly qualified, and therefore a complete closed production cycle and the most accurate measurements are ensured, as well as tests of equipment blocks and microcircuits are carried out with excellent quality. The company's products are distinguished by a high degree of reliability.
The company operates in accordance with the requirements of the State Standard ISO 9001-2011, which covers the production and development of the latest integrated circuits, electromechanical filters, piezoelectric devices, cermet packages for microcircuits, microassembly of multi-crystal modules, electronic equipment and power supplies.
PKK Milandr, a Russian company that develops and manufactures microelectronic element base and radio-electronic equipment, includes Milandr EK, which has received certification from the Electronsert CSO. It is a highly qualified supplier of foreign anddomestic component base of electronics, which includes cooperative deliveries of electronic components under the agreement of the CIS parties.
"Milandr EK" is a separate subdivision that sells the products of ITCM LLC. This enterprise is equipped with a number of the most modern test facilities, including unique foreign ones. Accreditation gives the right to test microcircuits of both foreign and domestic production. A large number of different integrated circuits with standards up to 40 nm and electronic equipment based on them are developed and produced here.
PKK Milandr owns a unique scientific and industrial base. Powerful design centers have been created here, an educational and testing center and an assembly measuring production are operating. The company differs from others in that it ensures the creation of the final product from scratch, and this product is in high demand on the market. Moreover, the company always accompanies all its completed projects.
For ten years, the company has carried out more than 225 experimental design works for the industry, 206 of them have been brought to serial production. The main consumers are Russian enterprises of instrument making, radio engineering systems, communication equipment, telemetry systems, on-board computers. The company has its representatives in Penza, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Voronezh, where Russian-made microcontrollers are also manufactured. Cooperationcarried out with the Department of Nanotechnology at the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 1961, a design bureau was opened at the semiconductor plant in Voronezh, which later grew into a famous enterprise of the most modern electronic equipment. It was there and it was then that the history of JSC "NIIET" began. At first, the enterprise produced diodes and transistors - semiconductor devices based on silicon and germanium, which were developed by the Moscow Research Institute "Pulsar". But soon all the work began to be carried out independently.
A landmark achievement was the development of the very first integrated circuit in the 60s of the last century. Planar technology processes were introduced, which subsequently helped develop the first bipolar integrated circuits. And today, products of this particular company are very popular on the market, for example, the 1886we4u microcontroller. In 1968, the first RAM integrated circuits with a capacity of 16 bits using MOS technology, created by the team, were introduced into production, which served as an impetus for the development of domestic microelectronics. From here, integrated circuits of a whole generation were realized. Bipolar LSIs from the famous 1804 series (here the injection logic serves as the basis) and the distant 1887 series - the 1887ve4u microcontroller, were created after the 80s of the XX century as a result of a long creative path.
Scientific and technical activities of the enterprise are aimed atdevelopment of microcontrollers and microcomputers since the early seventies. Already at that time there was a fairly intensive development of communications and computer technology, CAD and various control systems. Locally produced microcircuits were equipped with domestic computers - "Electronics-82", "Electronics-85", "Electronics-100". In 1986, the creation of digital processors for signal processing for special equipment (DSP) began.
There was not a single year in the history of JSC "NIIET" when its development would be suspended, growth was always observed, and with the achievement of each new height, the desire for the next one always began. In the field of development of microelectronics in our country, it would be difficult to find equal specialists of this enterprise. They mastered more than one hundred and fifty types of the most powerful microwave transistors, as well as integrated circuits for various purposes, developed locally from scratch.