Proper organization of production processes allows you to achieve high performance of the company. Depending on the type of activity, it is required to apply the division and cooperation of labor. These categories make it possible to achieve a reduction in the production cycle, specialize tools, and increase productivity. The meaning, types and essence of these processes will be discussed further.
Considering the concept of division and cooperation of labor, it should be noted that these are the main forms of its organization. They define the functions of each employee of the company, his duties and place in the overall production process. Describing the division and cooperation of labor briefly, it is worth noting that these are the forms of its organization that determine the requirements for the quality of the work of employees, the qualifications of each of them.
Featuredconcepts are closely related. They complement each other, allowing you to organize the production cycle in the most optimal way, taking into account the peculiarities of the manufacturing technology of the final product.
Considering the presented categories on a larger scale, it is worth noting that the international division of labor, specialization and cooperation are applied in order to create optimal conditions for its social form. This allows you to create and maintain reasonable, natural proportions between the spheres of industrial and non-productive human activity. Such processes are needed to harmonize social reproduction, its proper distribution between sectors of economic activity.
It is worth noting that the complex system of international cooperation, the division of labor, as well as its social organization include several different levels of elements. They differ in scale and significance:
- organization of links between production and non-production spheres in the framework of international activities;
- establishing interaction between global processes within a certain state;
- organization of the interaction of elements within the production and non-production spheres;
- creating links for interaction within industries, including between individual enterprises;
- organizing the interaction of workers within the same production, up to the development of work standards for each individual employee.
At any of the listed levels, it is necessary to correctly apply such formssocial reproduction as a rational division and cooperation of labor. This procedure is carried out by managers of different levels, based on the current situation within the structural unit.
Division of labor and its essence
If we talk about the division and cooperation of labor briefly, then these are complementary and interrelated processes. They are applied at different levels of the social organization of production, pursuing certain goals.
The division of labor is the division of activities of the company's employees in the process of their joint work, the provision of services or the manufacture of finished products. Modern production involves the complication of technological cycles. Innovative methods are constantly being introduced, high-performance equipment is being installed. Because of this, the division of labor is developing, its deepening.
Different forms of organization of production activities significantly affect the planning, specialization, and arrangement of workplaces. In accordance with the accepted approaches to its organization, maintenance is carried out, work time is rationed, appropriate methods and techniques are applied.
Studying the essence of the division and cooperation of labor, it is worth noting that by rationalizing them, uniform, full utilization of production capacities is ensured. At the same time, the activities of employees will be coordinated, synchronous. For this reason, the importance of the division of labor is extremely high, both from the economic and social side.
Activity is broken down in this case into simpler constituent elements. Thanks to this approach, it is possible to complete the production task with the participation of a smaller number of employees. However, they may be less qualified. The division of labor reduces costs. The funds released from circulation can be directed to the further development of automation and mechanization. As a result, there is a positive trend in productivity.
The essence and meaning of separation
Improving the division and cooperation of labor within the framework of one production or industry, the entire economic system allows you to harmonize a number of processes. So, within the production, different types of work are distinguished, which are components of the process of manufacturing the final product. Each partial process is assigned to one or more employees.
This approach aims to increase labor productivity. Workers learn labor skills faster, learn to handle tools more skillfully. In this case, several operations are carried out in parallel. The number of separate processes is determined by the organization and technological processes of the company.
With the division and cooperation of managerial work, the activities of employees involved in production, certain requirements are put forward. This allows you to designate the criteria in accordance with which the presented forms of organization of technological processes are used. In the process of division of labor adhere to the followingrequirements and rules:
- The procedure for dividing the process of manufacturing the final product into separate incomplete processes should not lead to a decrease in the efficiency of equipment operation and the use of working time.
- The division of labor should not be accompanied by depersonalization, an increase in the irresponsibility of employees for the result of their activities.
- It is impermissible to divide the processes of the technological cycle too fractionally. Otherwise, the design procedure, the organization of manufacturing processes, and labor rationing become more complicated.
In addition, the qualifications of employees should not be reduced. Labor cannot lose its content, become monotonous and tedious. To prevent this, it is necessary to periodically change places of employees, eliminate the monotony of movements. Also, variable work rhythms, regulated breaks can be introduced, during which employees will have an active, interesting rest.
Division and cooperation of labor in the enterprise can be carried out in different forms. The main ones are as follows:
The technological method of division of labor involves dividing the production cycle into stages, for example, procurement, processing, assembly, and so on. It can also be divided into phases, operations, partial technological procedures, etc.
Depending on the depth of differentiation of the production process, in relation to isolatedtypes of work distinguish the following division of labor:
With the operational division of labor, certain operations are distributed and assigned to individual employees. It is planned to carry out the placement of workers, in which their rational employment will be ensured. In this case, the equipment must be optimally loaded. Operational division of labor is achieved by deepening the specialization of employees. Labor productivity in this case increases due to the development of a dynamic, stable stereotype of the employee's performance of the task assigned to him. It is supposed to use specialized equipment, mechanization of the manufacturing process.
In the course of the substantive division of labor, it is assumed that each individual performer is assigned a limited set of works during which one product is created.
Detailed division of labor involves the creation of a certain part of the part by one employee.
Existing forms of division and cooperation of labor are used in accordance with the characteristics of production, company goals, and other factors. If such organizational approaches are not applied correctly, the indicator of labor productivity may decrease. Therefore, this issue is approached very responsibly.
Considering the types of division and cooperation of labor, one more common approach should be noted. It is calledfunctional, as it involves the separation of varieties of professional activities of employees who specialize in performing tasks that are different in economic significance and content. In accordance with this approach to the division of labor, the following categories of workers are distinguished:
- Basic. These are employees engaged in the production of finished products or the provision of services, works.
- Auxiliary. They specialize in providing conditions for the activities of key employees. At the same time, auxiliary workers do not participate in the manufacture of products.
- Serving. The work of this category of workers creates the conditions for the performance of the functional tasks of the main and auxiliary workers.
Separated into separate groups is the division and cooperation of managerial labor, as well as employees and specialists. This makes it possible to take into account the peculiarities of the professional activity of each category of employees. Grouping is done in this case according to the principle of their functions. Rational proportions are determined between these categories of employees.
Within the framework of the functional approach of the division of labor, qualification and professional forms are distinguished. The choice depends on the goals of the enterprise. The professional approach involves the division of the work process within a particular profession. In the qualification division of labor, employees are grouped according to the principle of the complexity of their activities. For this, a system of tariff categories or qualification categories is applied.
Cooperation, division of labor andproduction management depends on various factors. The main ones are the type of production, the complexity and volume of output, and so on. Therefore, in the process of choosing the optimal form of organization, it is extremely important to analyze these factors. This allows us to justify the optimal boundaries of the division of labor.
If we consider this procedure from a social point of view, the excessive division of the production process leads to the impoverishment of its content, turning employees into narrow specialists. From the position of physiology, this leads to an increase in the monotony of operations, which leads to increased fatigue and high staff turnover. Therefore, in the course of analyzing the factors of cooperation, specialization, division of labor, the following boundaries are considered:
The technological framework of the division of labor is determined by the methodology of the production cycle. In accordance with it, the manufacturing process of products is divided into separate operations.
The lower technological limit is a work technique that consists of three or more employee actions. They follow each other continuously, have a specific purpose. The upper limit of the technological division of labor assumes that one employee makes the entire product from scratch.
The economic frontier is determined according to the workload of workers, as well as the duration of the production cycle. With literacy, exactlycalculated division of labor, the production cycle is reduced due to the parallel execution of operations. At the same time, the indicator of labor productivity increases, as the assimilation by workers of the techniques and methods of manufacturing products is accelerated.
If the division of labor is excessive, exceeds the economic frontier, this will lead to a violation of the proportions in the structure of the cost of working time. On the one hand, the processing time of materials and blanks will be reduced, but at the same time, the duration of operations for removing and installing parts, transporting objects of labor between operations will increase. It also increases the time spent on interoperational control, preparatory and final procedures. From an economic point of view, the option is considered optimal when the sum of factors that reduce the duration of the cycle is higher than the influence of opposite causes.
Another economic criterion is the full use of time. The employee should be as busy as possible during the shift. The division of labor should be such that employees do not stand idle. To do this, they are expanding their production functions and service areas of automated lines.
Psychophysiological and social boundaries
Division and cooperation of labor at the enterprise also have psychophysiological boundaries. They are determined by the permissible loads that affect the employees of the company. The duration of each operation should be optimal so that the psychological and physical stress is moderate. To this end, a variety of working methods are used, whichallow you to alternate the load on different parts of the body and organs. Monotony and monotonous, long work methods are tiring, reduce labor productivity over time.
The social boundaries of the division of labor are determined by the minimum required level of diversity of functions, at which work becomes meaningful and attractive to staff. An employee must see the result of his activity, receive a certain satisfaction from it.
If work is a set of simple movements, monotonous actions, this reduces the employee's interest in him. Such activities are devoid of creativity, do not contribute to the growth of qualifications, etc.
Cooperation and its essence
Organization of the division and cooperation of labor is carried out in the course of a thorough analysis and evaluation of the features of technological cycles. At the same time, both approaches to the formation of the organizational structure are inextricably linked. The deeper the division of labor, the more important cooperation is for the effectiveness of the work of the staff.
Collective labor cannot be regarded as the sum of partial labor processes. It is important to find the optimal balance between the separated actions of the staff. At the same time, the correct placement of workers is determined, in which employment will be rational. In this case, labor productivity will be as high as possible.
Therefore, cooperation should be considered as a process of bringing employees together in the course of their joint actions aimed at achieving a commonresult.
Separate forms of division and cooperation of labor are quite diverse. They are closely related to the organizational and technical features of the company. However, all varieties of such forms are usually reduced to three main categories of cooperation:
Intershop cooperation is based on the division of the production process between separate shops. It consists in the participation of the production site team in activities aimed at achieving a common result for the company in the course of manufacturing products.
Intrashop cooperation is the interaction of individual structural units. These can be sites, production lines, departments, etc.
Cooperation within the site involves the interaction between individual employees who perform their functional duties in the course of joint work with other members of the team. They unite in brigades, groups, etc.
Boundaries of cooperation
Division and cooperation of labor have certain boundaries. This determines the scope of deepening each form within a particular production. Cooperation has economic and organizational boundaries. This is the framework in which the submitted form will be most appropriate.
The organizational boundary assumes that for any work to be done, at least two people must be brought together. The upper limit of cooperation in this case is determined by the norm of controllability. If it is exceeded, it will be impossible to agreegroup activity. This will result in significant loss of working time.
The economic frontier involves establishing a degree of cooperation that will reduce costs to the limit. The calculation is made for living and materialized labor per unit of finished product.
Features of development in production
Cooperation, like the division of labor, manifests itself in the course of production in various forms. Their choice is influenced by various factors. First of all, it is the level of technical equipment of production. The composition of the equipment that is used during the production cycle affects the specialization of auxiliary, key employees.
The content of labor is predetermined by the level of mechanization and automation in the enterprise. In accordance with this, the professional level and qualifications of employees are determined.
Cooperation, like the division of labor, is determined by the type of production. They also depend on the approach to organizing sites and workshops. This, for example, can be a substantive, technological, mixed principle. The construction of auxiliary services is also taken into account.
The choice of the form of organization is influenced by the complexity of products. The qualification composition, the structure of groups of employees of the company depends on this.