Under state-administrative activity is meant a kind of socially useful work. In fact, this is the professional work of persons involved in the apparatus of state power on an ongoing basis. Any management process implies a set of requirements for management objects, so everyone involved in the civil service must be highly qualified and have special human qualities. So, what is the personnel structure, what is its structure and classification? These questions will be answered later.
Purpose of the public service
The role of high-quality personnel is hard to overestimate. Speaking of personnel, they mean civil servants. Their qualifications, knowledge, experience, management skills and ability to make wise, far-sighted decisions are a guaranteeprosperity and authority of the state in the domestic and international arena. The implementation of the political, economic and social strategy is possible only if the state is represented by people who are distinguished by special professional qualities.
Managerial work in power structures has a number of features both from a theoretical and practical point of view. First of all, the need for it is determined by the purpose of the civil service. The personnel structure of the power apparatus is called upon to determine the main directions of social development, organize and regulate social relations, regulate and evaluate the activities of not individual social groups, but the general mass of the population.
Thus, the management of the personnel of the state civil service is one of the forms of practical implementation of state power and the application of the powers of its representatives.
The importance of personnel in the public administration system
Civil servants belong to a special social group, in which there are tens of thousands of specialists with different official status, educational profile and qualifications. Under the staff of public administration are also understood politicians and statesmen who are in constant service relations with power structures. Some of them work in government agencies, some in municipalities.
Civil service personnel are elected by the people (president, governors, deputies) orappointed by senior management in accordance with the law. All managers are endowed with authority to varying degrees, so their professional and personal qualities must meet stringent requirements. In addition, the very process of forming the cadre of civil servants must be streamlined and thought out to the smallest detail, so that the country is led by the most worthy and decent people, real professionals.
Today, the personnel policy of the Russian state can hardly be called thoughtful, highly effective and justified. The applied personnel technologies lack regularity, consistency, stability and balance. To a greater extent, it is limited by various kinds of political ideology, temporary reforms and insufficient professionalism of the managerial level.
Unified information system for personnel management
This is an electronic database with official legal status. The unified personnel management system uses electronic personnel document management, created on the basis of the infrastructure of the "Federal portal of public service and managerial personnel", which has been operating since 2009. This register provides citizens with access to information about the state civil service in the Russian Federation.
You can enter the Unified Information System for Personnel Management through the website gossluzhba.gov.ru. The specified service is recognized as a basic resource containing versatile information about personnel in stateorgans. In addition, the Unified Information System for personnel allows you to receive certificates of income, property, obligations of a civil servant in a simplified manner.
The service consists of an open part, where user access is not limited, and a personal part. The resource contains information about the state and stage of implementation of the concept for the development of personnel in the civil service of the Russian Federation. The system also provides a database of current vacancies for civil servants throughout the Russian Federation and a reserve of potential managers.
The introduction of the Unified HR Management System is aimed at a smooth transition of the work of government agencies to electronic document management in order to optimize the costs of developing duplicate personnel policy tools.
Flaws and gaps in the modern civil service
In Soviet times, it was believed that building a developed communist society could solve all the existing problems of personnel policy, because only those people who had the “correct” political and business outlook, possessed the necessary moral qualities, adhered to the ideas of democratic centralism and Marxism. Then the process of personnel management could be considered ideal only if it was based on scientific and theoretical justifications.
In practice, everything turned out differently. Soviet politicians never managed to solve the problem of training personnel in the civil service. The reason for the failure was coercion and the brutal suppression of the initiative.
Even minor reforms and changes are doomedto failure without restructuring the cadres of the state apparatus. In part, the civil service is still pursued today by the model of the party-Soviet personnel system, which turned out to be ineffective. Local state power is concentrated in the hands of unprofessional and irresponsible workers, so Russia still needs high-class managers.
The formation of the civil service personnel should be under strict control. Otherwise, the inability to analyze the true state of affairs, organize and control the implementation of planned measures and programs will lead to degradation of the country's managerial potential.
Today, among the civil service personnel there are many amateurs with superficial knowledge in the political and administrative spheres, with suspicious business experience and a changeable civic position. Thus, state building must begin with an increase in the legal and moral component, mastering effective methods for the selection and education of civil servants. Only in this case will it be possible to choose the right vector of socio-economic development.
Structure of civil service personnel
Management at the federal and regional levels is carried out by different groups of civil servants. They can be classified according to several criteria, based on the structure of the civil service.
First of all, the staff of the statethe civil service can be conditionally divided into five job categories:
- high-ranking leaders (president, ministers, governors), leaders of political parties and other persons who belong to the ruling political and administrative elite;
- civil servants holding positions in the military and law enforcement public service;
- cadres of local self-government bodies, which include heads of municipalities, district administrations, deputies elected by popular vote, etc.;
- municipal employees - employees who carry out professional activities in municipal service positions;
- employees of the organizational and technical plan - personnel ensuring the smooth operation of state bodies and self-government structures.
By social and legal status
According to this criterion, the staff includes officials (officials) and service employees. The first group is the main one, the second category of civil servants performs auxiliary functions.
Officers are politicians and managers in the structure of state bodies and the system of local self-government. In the course of their professional activities, they exercise the scope of power, represent in their person the relevant political associations, authorities, subordinate organizations.
The activities of workers who occupy positions of an organizational and technical nature are no less important, since theyare responsible for providing material, social and other directions in the process of fulfilling managerial tasks.
What should be a civil servant: basic aspects
The initial characteristics of a manager, regardless of the level of activity (federal, regional, local self-government), can be compiled according to four main points.
The general cultural and educational aspect is of paramount importance. The formation of personnel with the involvement of persons who do not have a broad general humanitarian and socio-economic educational background will not bring positive results. Applicants for civil service positions must have a sufficient level of knowledge in those areas that are provided for by the standards of higher professional education. Usually they include a whole list of academic disciplines, including:
- theory of state and law;
- history of Russia and foreign countries;
- political science;
- natural science (in the context of the basic concepts of modern society);
- foreign languages;
Besides, adequate life attitudes and sound ideological orientations also matter here. Both for a manager and for a civil servant of a lower level, good manners, tact, stress resistance, and corporate culture are also decisive qualities. Persons holding leadership positions must have charisma and have a sufficient level of oratoryart.
Professionally, civil service personnel value competence, the ability to use previously acquired experience and knowledge in appropriate situations. Moreover, the ability to apply existing skills is necessary in all branches of the public service, and not only in matters of macro- and microeconomics, federal and regional budgets, geopolitics and municipal government. Without a professional staff at the central office and in the field, it is impossible to effectively manage social risks, fight the demographic crisis, introduce computer technologies in the field of ecology, he althcare, transport infrastructure, etc. By the way, knowledge in the field of information resources in most cases turns out to be the main, because in the conditions of modern society it is important to be able to comprehensively diagnose and influence ongoing changes, promote the development of positive trends and prevent regression.
In terms of business characteristics, a civil servant must have an active citizenship, be organized and disciplined, responsible. The Unified Personnel Information System described above does not contain any general requirements for candidates for filling positions. However, the possession of such qualities as perseverance in the process of fulfilling the tasks set, the desire for professional self-improvement, the improvement of existing qualifications, the ability to give an objective assessment of the work done is implied by itself.
Speaking of the personal aspect, a civil servant must be honest,independent, purposeful, hardworking, initiative, sociable and reliable. It is also important not to give in to the main professional principles and resist various temptations (do not take bribes, do not abuse your official position, etc.).
Tasks of personnel policy
The above model of a civil servant in the managerial sector is ideal from a scientific point of view. In fact, this characteristic covers all the requirements that society imposes on officials. A civil servant who will have such a set of qualities will really be able to carry out his activities consistently, constructively, apply innovative approaches, objectively forecast and plan, competently manage resources and achieve the desired results.
Today, the main task of the state personnel management system is the formation of a reserve consisting of educated, psychologically stable and purposeful personnel. The main directions of personnel policy are:
- exploring new technologies for forecasting and strategic planning;
- application of a monitoring regime that would allow determining the needs for personnel with certain qualities;
- introduction of search systems that have passed testing to select and determine the professional suitability of a candidate for a position in the public administration or local government;
- providing conditions for stable career growth of staff throughcontinuous professional development;
- creating a rational system to encourage productive work;
- use of an effective reserve for the timely renewal of the personnel of the state civil service.
Basic principles for the implementation of personnel policy
When forming the current apparatus of the civil service, it is important to adhere to the line of pragmatism and stability of personnel processes. The process of educating civil service personnel in the public administration system requires the use of the following principles:
- a specific historical approach that allows taking into account the needs of society in personnel at the moment and assessing the actual possibilities of meeting them;
- legitimacy, that is, making personnel decisions in accordance with the law;
- systematic work of the civil service apparatus, which ensures the unity of goals and principles with the methods of conducting personnel work;
- differentiated approach to the implementation of planned personnel programs and concepts, taking into account the characteristics of various areas of management;
- prudence in personnel decisions;
- organic combination of scientific forms and methods with innovative projects in personnel policy;
- equality, ensuring general access to the apparatus of state and municipal government, the prohibition of discrimination and restrictions on sex, nationality, language, religion, political prejudice, place of residence or financial status;
- compliance with generally accepted moralvalues and humanism;
- protection of the rights, freedoms, dignity of man and citizen.
Methods used in recruitment
The methods of personnel policy are also versatile. They mean a targeted influence (direct and indirect) on the course of personnel processes. All methods used in the selection of personnel are distinguished by the principle of the authority of state power.
Thus, administrative methods are distinguished into a separate category, which include forecasting, planning and direct organizational and administrative impact on personnel processes. This also includes tools for monitoring, evaluating, motivating, encouraging and holding accountable, applying various coercive measures and sanctions against unscrupulous employees. Administrative methods involve careful selection of candidates for a position by studying personal information and performance characteristics, testing, attestation, qualifying exams, requesting expert opinions, and so on.
The second group is the legal (formal) methods that are associated with the observance of legislation in the public service. It implies the maintenance of a regulatory framework, consisting of documents on the placement, distribution of personnel, certification, dismissal, their job descriptions, etc. Such documents are orders, administrative and job regulations, instructions that can be imperative-prescriptive, recommendatory, encouraging, approving orpunishing character.
The third group is the methods of psychological and volitional influence on the staff: persuasion, authority, moral encouragement, personal example and education. In practice, methods of coercion are often used, and not always within the framework of the legal framework and job descriptions. It is strictly forbidden to use methods of humiliation, blackmail, threats, etc.