The relationship between the seller and buyers is one of the most difficult, as the seller needs to find a common language with them. According to research, the effectiveness of sales depends on how much the seller knows the types of buyers and how to find an approach to them. And buyers are primarily people, each of which has its own psychological characteristics.
We are all different, we visit different outlets, we choose products of well-known and not very brands at expensive and affordable prices. The modern standard of living allows us to classify all buyers according to the following principles:
- Potential: there are customers who regularly visit a particular outlet, but do not buy goods.
- New customers enter the store for the first time. And sellers are tasked with making a good impression on customers so that they make a choice in favor of this outlet.
- Loyal customers: they are familiar with the sellers, always make a choice in a particular store and value it for the quality of the product, or the price, or the service staff.
- Non-preference shoppers: These types of shoppers are the hardest to handle as they need to be carefully managed.
Each of us comes to a certain store for specific purchases. And each of us has special emotions from visiting a particular outlet. Psychologists classify all clients into separate types according to their emotional state:
- Uncommunicative customers: they are reserved and quiet, and they don't like answering salesmen's questions.
- Shy buyers always think they are right, so they rarely listen to the advice of sellers, they are characterized by nervousness and excitement.
- Good-natured buyers are always willing to talk with sellers, listen to their advice and even follow them. Sometimes such customers purchase goods because they are afraid to offend the seller with their distrust.
These are the main types of buyers of the store by emotional state, but between these categories there are many customers whose psychological state can vary from aggression to self-confidence and obsession.
Shopping is an emotional process and every shopper behaves differently. Someone can choose the same thing for a long time, having measured a lot of them, and someone comes for a specific model and buys it. According to psychologists, all types of buyers behave differently when a new product appears on the shelves:
- Innovators are those customers who react the fastest to new products in stores, and for them their own self-assertion is more important. Such clients, according to psychologists,strive to attract the attention of others with original, and most importantly, new clothes.
- Active customers also make quick purchases, but they are driven by advertising.
- Progressive shoppers are the most popular type, as they buy a product when its popularity peaks.
- Materialists are customers who buy items that are already out of fashion at discount prices. They do not accept new products and take what works well.
What marketers say
In their opinion, it is possible to determine the type of buyer by behavioral criteria. Marketers identify 4 types of consumers:
- With complex behavior. This behavior is typical of customers who buy new and expensive products. As a rule, such purchases are made infrequently, so this is done consciously. Such buying behavior is called complex, as the consumer seeks to study all aspects of the purchase in order to eliminate possible risks for himself. In this case, the seller strives to provide the most informative and intelligible information about the product and its properties, its advantages, so that the buyer can verify the correctness of his own choice.
- Many types, kinds of buyers have insecure behavior when they have the opportunity to choose from a number of identical and similar products. Psychologists note that such consumers acquire things as a means of self-expression.
- Habitual buying behavior is characteristic of those consumers who havelow engagement and does not see much difference between products. Such buyers simply go to the store for a specific thing and buy it without comparing or looking for benefits. Since these buyers do not have brand loy alty, marketers use solutions such as discounted prices or sales to stimulate them.
- Search behavior: Consumers with this behavior do not focus on a particular brand - they choose what they like here and now.
Business customer types
The buyer can be different - cheerful and withdrawn, searching and knowing exactly why he came to the store or to the market. And if the market still has the opportunity to bargain and set a price that is convenient for you, then this does not work in stores. What types of buyers are, it is important to know for the sellers themselves, as this allows you to properly organize work with customers. And the client is different, as are his intentions:
- Wants and can buy: in this case, the seller is interested in getting the customer interested and leading him to buy.
- Wants but cannot buy: in this case, the seller finds out the reasons for the impossibility of buying and tries to make sure that the client still makes a choice in favor of this product.
- Doesn't want to, but has the ability to buy.
All these types of buyers are quite common in the market, so sellers have to think through the strategy and look for an approach to each specific buyer in accordance with his requirements andopportunities.
Who are you
All psychological types of clients can be described in the following words:
- Analysts are always looking for the answer to the question "How?" and strive to find a product that would meet their requirements. These consumers are not too lazy to check the facts, as they love perfection in everything. They ask a lot of questions, so the sellers have to use all the strength and patience to convey all the important information to the client.
- Dedicated shoppers always know what they want and when. So they come to the store or the market already with a specific goal, set to win, so mistakes or wrong choices are excluded. Such buyers save their time, so they will not waste it on unnecessary questions.
- Why-why-customers are guided by getting to know the ins and outs of the products. They talk and ask a lot, patiently listen to all the answers, but they are not very interested in facts and details.
- Emotional shoppers are risk-takers, they are energetic, so they often make spontaneous purchases. Most often, this type of people strives to emphasize their prestige and love for comfortable conditions.
Shopping is a complex process both economically and psychologically. Scientists even create special models of end-user behavior. So, according to F. Hotler, each buyer behaves in stages: first he realizes and searches for information, then he makes a decision and evaluates the correctness of hisactions. The main types of buyers act exactly like this: first they determine the need for a purchase, study it, then they simulate a search situation and go to the store. And here it is already important that the consumer makes a quick decision, and this is influenced by many factors.
According to the Bethmann model, choice is an iterative procedure, not a sequential one. The scientist believes that the consumer first processes information, is motivated to buy a product, evaluates it, taking into account situational influences and individual preferences. And only then decides whether to buy or not to buy.
What kind of buyers, such and purchases
We are all unique, each with their own priorities, values and needs. Different types of buyers, types of purchases, and that's okay. But scientists believe that the choice of a particular product is primarily a psychological matter. And this is skillfully used by both marketers and sellers. All purchases, in their opinion, are divided into three types:
- Purchases that are clearly planned.
- Spontaneous shopping here and now.
- Partially planned purchases.
It is noteworthy that most of the buyers make spontaneous purchases, and these can be goods of any price category. Most often, the consumer unplannedly chooses something compact and often used at home. The sellers themselves lay out all these impulse goods in the most visible place - so that the buyer definitely does not pass by. In addition, it is important that the place is carefully organized andattracted attention with bright colors or images.
What from an economic point of view
The buyer is interesting not only to marketers and psychologists, but also to economists. They concluded that different types of buyers behave according to several effects:
- effect of solidarity with the majority;
- snob effect;
- veblen effect;
- price effect.
The effect of solidarity with the majority says that a person buys a product not because he needs it, but because the majority does it. That is, such buyers strive to be like everyone else, to match other people in order to meet their ideas about fashion, elegance, and so on.
The snob effect is the desire to make purchases for the sake of one's status, in order to show one's own significance and originality, to stand out from the crowd. According to the Veblen effect, goods are bought for conspicuous consumption. Most often, expensive things are bought, designed to tell about the prestige and status of the buyer. The price effect dominates when a product is chosen not only for quality but also for price.
All different but all the same
In general, buying behavior can be explained by various factors - income, momentary need, whim, and desire to stand out. Someone evaluates the product, someone chooses the most fashionable, someone always prefers the brand of the same product, and someone is not attached to anyspecific brands. We are all buyers of different types and levels of life, but, according to scientists, we are all waiting for quality things that would be sold to us with attention and communication. And the modern shopper is not one who craves pleasure, but one who seeks above all to be informed and in control of their decisions.