If a bank fails to meet its financial obligations to depositors, it may face revocation of its license. Every year about 80 commercial banks go bankrupt. The consequences for clients who placed a deposit in such an institution or took out a loan are negative. But depositors do not always have an idea of how things are going with the bank to which they have entrusted their savings. The list of banks with revoked licenses allows you to find out who went bankrupt and what to do with loans and deposits.
Why can a license be revoked?
There are several reasons why financial institutions may lose their license to operate. But the main reason is non-compliance with the law of the Russian Federation "On Banking". In 8 out of 10 cases, the violation is associated with lowliquidity of assets due to risky credit policy. In other words, the bank lends more than it can afford. What's next?
Minimum loan defaults attract new borrowers. But often, the lender that gives consumer loans to almost everyone is approached by clients with a bad credit history. Issuing loans to unreliable clients in 7 out of 10 cases leads to an increase in overdue debt.
So. Irrational credit policy is one of the main reasons for the revocation of the license by the Central Bank. But often it's not just about her. The bank's management is always aware of what is happening with the company. But not in all cases, top managers and executives try to take measures to reorganize the bank. On the contrary, in 78% of bankruptcy cases, large-scale transfers of bank funds abroad were revealed.
Such transactions indicate the withdrawal of assets. This has a negative impact on obligations to creditors and customers, and often serves as a reason for the accelerated revocation of a license. Transfers of assets abroad were noticed among the management of Vnesheconombank, MezhTopEnergobank, and Probiznebank. As a result of the investigations, some leaders were charged with fraud (Article 159 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).
"Prospects" for revocation of the license by the Central Bank
The media and the Internet help citizens find out if their creditor has financial problems. Banks usually do not advertise serious difficulties beforeuntil they become known to journalists. Otherwise, this will lead to a rapid mass withdrawal of assets (as was the case with MezhTopEnergobank), which will further aggravate the financial situation.
A lender can be included in the list of banks with a revoked license from the Central Bank of the Russian Federation if the offices began to delay payments or refuse to accept them for a day or more. Long delays are unlikely to be due to a technical failure. In case of non-fulfillment of financial obligations, the Central Bank forces the creditor to stop accepting payments, including when paying online. Therefore, refusal to accept payments is one of the messengers of financial difficulties.
A sign that the company may be on the list of banks that may have their license revoked is the lack of funds in ATMs. This is not about the temporary emptying of devices, but about the long-term lack of cash in several ATMs at the same time.
If you cannot get money from bank cards for 3 days or more, you should contact the office with a passport. The issuance of limited amounts should also alert, for example, no more than 5,000 rubles per 1 client.
Which banks may lose their license in the future?
It is almost impossible to predict whether a bank's license will be revoked. Contrary to the opinion of clients, the Central Bank is taking active measures to reorganize financial institutions that the Russian economy needs. But for the preservation of the company, the interest of management in its future is no less important.
In 2019, suspicions ofbankruptcy appeared at three large well-known creditors - Promsvyazbank, Otkritie and Binbank.
Rehabilitation of Promsvyazbank
Since 2017, Promsvyazbank has been included in the list of banks that may have their license revoked. Once a leader in the industrial sector. It was among the top 10 banks in the Russian Federation in terms of assets (according to the results of 2018). But in December 2017, information appeared in the media that the Central Bank was taking measures to financially rehabilitate the lender.
After 2 months, Promsvyazbank appointed temporary management. This is one of the rehabilitation measures. It partially avoids bankruptcy. The amount of financial support provided by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation amounted to more than 88 billion rubles.
Financial problems of "Promsvyazbank" experts associate with irrational credit policy. In addition, the company's management was not interested in reorganizing the creditor. On the contrary, in 2017 there were cases of transfer of assets abroad in the amount of more than 280 billion rubles.
Now the financial situation in the bank cannot be unequivocally called stable. Most economists agree that Promsvyazbank will not be included in the list of banks with revoked licenses in 2019. But clients took the situation with apprehension after the publication in the media, as a result of which, in 2018, the liquidity of the bank's assets fell sharply. Due to the mass withdrawal of deposits and cash from accounts.
What happened to Binbank?
In 2017In the same year, another influential unit of the Russian banking sector, Binbank, began to experience financial difficulties. Possible problems were foreshadowed by technical failures in programs that periodically arose in mid-2017. But Binbank employees assured clients that all this had nothing to do with the bank's assets and was purely technical in nature.
However, on September 20, 2017, the management of Binbank requested the Central Bank to reorganize. The support was supposed to ensure that the financial institution operates at a break-even level and restore the trust of customers.
The reasons for the financial problems of Binbank differ from other cases. Here the situation is connected with the rehabilitation of the "Growth of the Bank", which was carried out at the expense of the credit funds of the "Binbank". Rost Bank's assets were low-grade, and as a result of the reorganization, the creditor bank got even bigger financial "holes" than it was before the recovery.
Financial support from the regulator
To avoid bankruptcy, "Binbank" was forced to request support from the state regulator - the Central Bank. This practice is not always used by Russian creditors, and in vain. Timely received financial support in the amount of almost 1 trillion. rubles allowed the bank to stay afloat. And fulfill obligations to creditors.
Currently, "Binbank" is not included in the list of banks with revoked licenses. All this thanks to timely assistance.Central Bank. The company's share in the Russian banking sector in 2008 was 2%. You can't call him a big figure. But the Binbank brand is recognizable among the population, and banking products are in demand among customers.
One of the largest private banks in the country, the Otkritie brand, applied for funds from the Central Bank in August 2017. Earlier, in July 2017, more than 617 billion rubles were withdrawn from the bank's accounts. In August, the scale of the loss of assets only worsened: legal entities withdrew more than 389 billion rubles from their accounts. Later, the bank lost another 138 billion of its own funds.
The reason for such a sharp drop in assets was the unrest that spread among the clients of "Opening" after the publication in the media. Fearing for their deposits, individuals and legal entities hastened to withdraw funds from their accounts and bank cards. As a result, the situation of Otkritie Bank became critical. Otkritie did not add to the list of banks with revoked licenses. But he was on the verge of serious problems.
Causes of the crisis in Otkritie Bank
The beginning of the crisis was facilitated by the unsuccessful recovery of Trust Bank. The creditor represented by Otkritie failed to cope with the rehabilitation, which led to the first financial difficulties. In addition, the bank was going to acquire the Rosgosstrakh insurance company. The basis of Rosgosstrakh's activities was the sale of OSAGO policies. Mandatory policiesauto insurance is the most unprofitable part of protection in the Russian Federation.
All of this combined with the attack in the media led to a sharp loss of assets. Otkritie applied to the Central Bank of the Russian Federation for material support in August 2017. The Central Bank has reorganized and appointed interim management, and now nothing threatens the company's assets.
Combination of "Opening" and "Binbank"
In order not to be included in the list of banks whose license was revoked, the Central Bank decided to combine 2 brands - "Opening" and "Binbank". The concept of "Discovery" will be taken as a basis. The term "Binbank" will not be mentioned in the name of the company.
In 2018, the Central Bank revoked licenses from banks, the list of which Binbank and Otkritie did not replenish only by chance. Therefore, the joint brand should strengthen the position of the lender in the Russian financial market.
The product line will combine the best offers of both structures. It is planned that this will lead to an increase in market share. Earlier, in 2018, Otkritie accounted for 3% of all banking assets in the country, Binbank for 2%.
The brand merger took place on January 1, 2019. But in fact, the new lender will be introduced to the market only in July 2019. The network will include all branches of Binbank, Otkritie and Trust Bank.
Until March 2019, the details of Binbank will remain unchanged. after customersyou will have to make transfers on loans to new details. Bank "Opening" data remains unchanged.
Banks without a license. How to find out about the problems of the creditor?
With the active policy of the Central Bank to improve the Russian economy, annually 60-80 banks lose the right to engage in financial activities in the Russian Federation. It is known that in 2019, about 60 banks will have their licenses revoked: the list of creditors is kept secret by the Central Bank.
Finding out that a company is in trouble is not always easy. Bank managers hide information about possible problems from customers. For example, clients of MezhTopEnergobank, which lost its license in July 2017, did not know about the problems until the end of June 2017. The fact that he added to the list of banks with a revoked license, investors learned only on the doors of offices. There was no information on the bankruptcy on the site until the last day of the institution's operation.
Where can I find a list of bankrupt banks?
If there is any suspicion, for example, after information in the media, it is recommended to check the data on official sources. The bankruptcy message always "pops up" on the website of the Deposit Insurance Agency.
The state organization not only posts information that the Central Bank has revoked the license, and a list of bankrupt banks, but also reports on the appointment of agents. In agency banks, clients can receive payments on deposits. And pay the loan without commission.
You can also learn about the bankruptcies of the Russian banking sector on "Banki.ru":a list of revoked licenses is provided with the reason. This may be the revocation of a license by the Central Bank or the liquidation of a credit institution.
Top 45. List of banks that lost their license (based on Banki.ru data)
The list includes financial institutions that ceased to operate from June 1, 2018 to January 1, 2019. Licenses from banks revoked today (list):
- "Binbank Digital".
- "CDB Bank".
- "May Day".
- "Russian Mortgage Bank".
- "Modern Commercial Innovation Bank".
- "Bank for Innovation and Development".
- "International Bank of St. Petersburg (IBSP)".
- Ur altransbank.
- "PIR Bank".
- "Trade Finance Bank".
- "Grand Invest Bank".
- "Mikhailovsky PZHSB".
- "Central European Bank".
- "Moscow Vekselny Bank".
- "Innovative Settlement Center".
- "New Time".
- "Southern Regional Bank".
- "Growth Bank".