This concept is very common both in everyday speech and in specialized literature. But what is a floor? In the article we will answer this question in detail. Consider the most common types of floors. And also answer what is the number of storeys of the building. Let's start with the main concept.
What is a floor?
The word comes from the French. étage - "level".
What is a floor? Let's present several definitions of the concept from dictionaries:
- Part of the building space between two horizontal overlaps of its space. That is, between the ceiling and the floor. This space, in fact, acts as a room. A floor is also called the level of a building, not only above, but also below ground level.
- Part of the building, including rooms located strictly on the same level.
- A number of objects that are located horizontally are relative to each other at the same horizontal level.
- Part of the mine fields, which is located between the drifts.
- Part of the mine field, which is limited by the fall of the storey haulage and ventilation drifts (along the strike of the boundaries of this minefields).
- The longitudinal part of the house, all the premises of which are located on the same level.
- The main level of the building, which is measured from the ground level up or down.
- Part of a building that includes all rooms whose floors are on the same horizontal level.
- A part of a structure in height bounded by a floor and floor or a floor and floor.
- Part of the house between the floor marks (floors on the ground) and the top of the floor above this room (that is, the floor of the floor above).
- Any tier in various buildings.
Synonyms for the word
Depending on the context, the word "floor" can be replaced by related concepts:
You now know the exact definitions of what a floor of a house is. Its most important geometric characteristic is its height. In this context, this is a strictly vertical distance from the floor level of the considered floor to the floor level of the floor above.
As for the typical characteristics of most buildings in the Russian Federation, the standard floor height here is 2.7 m. But not all buildings have the same floor height. For example, the level at which the lobby of the building is located is slightly higher in some buildings than other floors.
Residential areas in both private and multi-apartment buildings are not alwaysare located only on the above-ground floors. Somewhere - and in the basement, attic.
In addition to multi-storey buildings, there are also multi-level houses. Such buildings are usually divided into several horizontal parts, offset from each other by about half a floor. One of the best examples here is multi-level parking.
What is a floor, we have established. Now let's analyze its main types:
- Elevated. This is the floor whose floor level is not lower than the ground level.
- Socle. What is a basement? Floor with room floor elevation below ground level. Moreover, to a height of at least half the height of the room, which is located on such a floor. We can say that this is a semi-underground floor, most of which is located above the ground.
- Basement. A floor with the floor level of the room below the ground level by more than half the height of the room. You can also say that this is a semi-underground floor, most of which is located underground.
- Underground. A floor whose room floor level is below ground level.
- Technical. Or those. floor of an apartment building. What's this? The floor where some engineering equipment is usually located. It can also be used for laying communications. Most often located in the lower part of the building - the so-called technical underground. But it can be arranged both in the middle and in the upper (other name - technical attic) part of the building.
- Mansard. Or attic floor. The attic, respectively, is located in the attic space, the facade of whichcan be either completely or partially created by the surfaces of a broken or sloped roof.
The concept of number of floors
Basically, buildings are classified according to the number of storeys. This is the number of floors in a building. When calculating the number of storeys, the number of above-ground levels is taken into account. They also include technical, attic and basement floors. The latter - only in the case when the top of its overlap is located above the planning average ground level of at least 2 meters.
What is the number of floors in a building? The concept should not be confused with the characteristic "number of floors". Only the above-ground part of the building is measured by the number of storeys. The number of floors is the number of all levels of the building. Including underground, basement, technical, above-ground, attic, basement, etc.
The term "number of floors" appears in the domestic Urban Planning Code. This is a criterion for the need for a state examination of the design documentation of any building. Here it cannot be replaced by the term "number of floors".
But it should be noted that this clarification matters only when determining the need for state expertise of the project. In most cases, it is the concept of "number of floors" that is used when clarifying the change in any characteristics of the building. For example, those related to historical buildings, in need of reconstruction, restoration, expressed in the addition of an additional floor.
As for the number of storeys, with its helpbuildings are classified into several types:
- Multi-storey. The tallest here are skyscrapers, which can include up to hundreds of floors.
Such a division, among other things, is important for determining the application of certain state sanitary standards to buildings. So, for high-rise multi-storey buildings, it is necessary to install additional systems to ensure the safety of people. For example, smoke-free staircases, fire extinguishing systems, etc.
Terms, norms and requirements regarding floors, their designs are contained in the following Russian regulations:
- SNiP 31-01.2003. "Multi-unit residential buildings". The requirements for the height of the floors and the number of storeys are generally indicated directly or indirectly in the sections "General provisions", "Requirements for the premises of apartments", "Bearing capacity", "Fire safety", "Evacuation assurance".
- SNiP 31-05-2003. "Public buildings of administrative significance".
- SNiP 31-06-2009. "Public buildings and buildings". Appendix B - here, in the second section of the application, the definitions of the floor and its above-mentioned varieties are given. Appendix D - rules for calculating the number of storeys of a building. Annex D - a list of premises, the arrangement of which is provided for in the basement and basement floors of a public building.
- Letter from the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation dated03/20/2013 No. OG-D23-1426 "On determining the number of floors, the number of floors …". Actually, the letter contains definitions of floors, as well as the number of floors and number of floors.
What is a basement? A basement is one of the effective ways to increase the usable area of a house. Which is very important not only for the construction of multi-apartment buildings, but also for private houses.
The ground floor is the above-ground part of the foundation. Its main difference from ground floors is that by some of its part (larger or smaller) the basement is deepened into the ground. This makes him somewhat related to the basement, underground premises. But in this number, the base rises above the ground more than others. In addition, it is also more practically applicable. In the basement, you can place both living rooms and utility rooms.
What is the basement in the house? Here is a definition from SNiP. The floor on which the floor mark is below the design ground mark to a height of no more than 1/2 of the room.
What is a basement floor in an apartment building? The level is considered as such if the upper part of the floors of its premises is located above the average design ground level by no more than 200 cm.
What is the basement in a residential building, we have established. Imagine its most visible benefits:
- The possibility of increasing the usable area of the building, which can be used for various purposes.
- Rational placement of premises of a residential building. For example, inthe basement is often designed laundries, food storage, utility rooms, utility rooms, etc.
- According to construction SNiPs, it is possible to place various equipment on the basement floor. That is, use it as a technical. It is also convenient for owners of country houses. In the basement, for example, you can place gas, heating equipment, and not build a separate utility block for it, occupy additional space on the site.
- The basement allows you to build a private house with more floors. For example, according to SNiPs in the private sector, it is unacceptable to build residential buildings above 2 floors (including attic). Basement levels are not included in this prohibition - if they rise above ground level by no more than 2 meters.
- In terms of its area, the basement floor can be either equal to the area of the house, or be larger than its first level. In the second case, the basement overlap is made an exploitable roof. For example, in the case of suburban buildings, a terrace can be built on it.
Plinth design features
Ground floor. What it is? The photo clearly shows. As you can see in the image, there is not much difference between the foundation of the basement and the basement. Here, the construction of a traditional strip foundation or the pouring of a monolithic reinforced slab is relevant. The sole of the base will be located below the floor level.
Overlapping, basement walls are erected from concrete, foundation blocks. Their characteristics depend on the climatic conditions of the area, soil conditions. So,if the substrate is dry, hollow lightweight blocks are used. They retain heat well - in case heating is carried out in the basement. But they need finishing and insulation with special insulation material.
Grounds must be ventilated to ensure air circulation and prevent condensation.
When building basement levels, great attention is paid to the strength of the structure. Therefore, according to the estimate, the construction of a basement sometimes comes out more expensive than several above-ground floors.
Saving on waterproofing in this case is absolutely not worth it. Moisture and dampness not only adversely affect the condition of building materials, but also lead to the formation of mold, which is harmful to the he alth of people living in the house. So that the basement is not subjected to the constant influence of precipitation, builders make a blind area around the entire perimeter of the house.
Purpose of the plinth
We have already noted that basement levels are universal. Consider two of the most common uses:
- Technical rooms. Most often, a gas boiler room is arranged in the basement, as this is allowed by SNiP. It can no longer be placed on the basement floor. To save space in the basement, a garage is equipped. But this is not the best option - exhausts and other chemical smells from the car rise through the ventilation shaft and disturb the residents of the house.
- Living quarters. Living rooms are often located in basements (especially in country houses). Someone is using thislevel for the pool, sports, game room. But in order to use the floor for such purposes, you need to think carefully about its protection from moisture and temperature extremes. Insulation work in this case is carried out from the outside of the foundation. Attractive options for the basement are baths, hamams, gyms, billiard rooms, offices, children's rooms, bedrooms.
What is a mezzanine floor? These are relatively lightweight structures installed in rooms with high ceilings. The goal is to increase the total usable area of the building. The second name of the mezzanine is the mezzanine, the intermediate floor.
From the side, it can look either like a full-fledged second floor, or like a built-in internal balcony. You need to take care of the arrangement of mezzanines either at the stage of building construction, or when redevelopment of the premises.
What is a mezzanine floor? Definition: An additional level in a building with high ceilings. It is recommended to install mezzanines in rooms with a height of approximately 5 meters. For a compact mezzanine, 3 meters is enough. Depending on the design, mezzanines can withstand a load in the range of 100-200 kg/m2.
Mezzanine floors are relevant in the following buildings:
- Residential private houses.
- Office space.
- Shopping malls.
- Industrial premises.
- Relatively thin slabs.
- No need for insulation.
- Promotesthe most useful use of building space.
The mezzanine floor in a residential building can be used for the following purposes:
- Recreation area.
- Sleeping area. On the lower level, it is convenient to place a dressing room here.
- Children's zone. On the mezzanine - a sleeping place, on the lower level - a playroom.
- Personal account or personal library.
The height of the top level here, as a rule, is greater than the height of the bottom one. For a comfortable stay on the mezzanine, a window and a ventilation duct are installed in this space. The most successful heating system is underfloor heating. With conventional central heating, it will always be hot and stuffy on the upper level, and colder on the lower level.
Floor is a very common concept. It can be above ground, basement, technical, mezzanine or basement. Each of these varieties has its own requirements for SNiPs. In addition, the number of storeys is one of the most important characteristics of various buildings.