The development of animal husbandry makes it necessary to increase the amount of feed for livestock. According to statistics, about half of the total average annual grain harvest is spent for these needs. At the same time, out of the total mass, 15-20 million tons falls on wheat. To reduce the cost of livestock products, instead of more expensive food cereals, feed grain is used. It is intended directly for feeding livestock. Forage is cheaper. This reduces the cost of livestock products.
Almost all grain crops in different proportions are divided into food and fodder. There are certain quality standards for the first variant of cereals. Grain that does not meet these standards is used as fodder or fodder. But this does not mean that absolutely everything that does not meet food standards is used to feed animals. The quality of feed grainsregulated by moisture, germination, weeds and other factors. Forage cereals are the main diet in pig breeding, poultry farming, sheep breeding, horse breeding. Grain forage is a concentrated feed. It is an indispensable component of the diet when raising cattle for meat.
How is feed grain different from regular grain?
For the production of cereals in agriculture, cereals, amaranth and buckwheat groups of botanical families are cultivated. The most common are wheat, barley, rye, corn, rice, oats and millet. These cereals are divided into several classes. Wheat is the main agricultural crop in the world. It is used for the production of bakery, confectionery and pasta products. Feed (forage) wheat is the basis of the diet in animal husbandry. Wheat serves as the foundation for the production of alcohol, beer and alcoholic beverages.
Conventionally, wheat is divided into soft and hard varieties. At the same time, the former are divided into six classes. Solid - five. The first four classes are used for food purposes. The fifth and sixth grades are for animal feed (feed grain). The class is determined in accordance with the requirements of the standard for the worst quality indicator. In other words, fodder or fodder grain is inferior to food grain in these indicators. There are fewer requirements for such grain. Therefore, its cost is lower. Difficulties in cultivation usually do not arise.
Classes and Specifications
Technicalrequirements form the so-called basic conditions. They include several quantitative and qualitative indicators of grain:
- Nature (unit weight) - the weight of 1 liter of grain, expressed in grams. This measure has been adopted only for wheat, barley, oats and rye. It characterizes the grain completion rate. Low-nature cereals - those that have not completed their development for certain reasons (early frosts, dry winds).
- The most important indicator of basic conditions of grain is humidity. Characterizes durability during storage.
- Contamination - limit values for the content of weed impurities.
The first three classes (highest, first and second) are the so-called strong varieties. They are used for food purposes both on their own and to improve weaker varieties. The third class is valuable cereals. They are independently used in the food industry and do not require improvement. The fourth grade is used in the industry after being improved by the first three grades. Fifth and sixth grade - feed grain.
Types of coarse grains
One of the most popular feeds in the world is corn feed grain. Feed corn favorably stands out among other feed cereals with a high content of starch, fat (up to 8%) and protein (about 10%). The forage variety has the highest energy value and the best digestibility. This grain of corn is great for feeding all kinds of animals. It is the main component for many mixtures andcompound feed.
Fodder grain of wheat is no less widely used in feeding farm animals. In terms of overall nutritional value, such cereals are second only to corn. Feed wheat also has a high energy value and digestibility. Such grain is used as the basis for the preparation of feed mixtures. But that's not all.
Oat and barley grain forage is an excellent feed for horses, dairy cattle and pigs. The chemical composition is distinguished by a high content of fat and fiber. When feeding this forage to dairy cows, the quality of milk improves.
Storage of feed grain is no different from food grain. You just need to pay attention to some factors. So, safety depends on the preparation of the storage and the grain itself, as well as compliance with storage conditions. Humidity is the main factor influencing preservation. Weathered grain with an index of no more than 12% can be perfectly stored for many years without significant weight loss. With such humidity, there are no conditions for biochemical processes. On the contrary, its increase contributes to the development of pests, the release of heat. As a result, cereals spoil. By the way, the storage temperature should not exceed 10 ºС.