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Plant design: norms and documentation
Plant design: norms and documentation
Anonim

Designing factories is, of course, a very important matter. A responsible approach to it will guarantee the rapid growth of production in the future and, as a result, its profitability. Of course, the process of designing an industrial enterprise requires the involvement of specialists from various fields of activity. At the same time, such a procedure is carried out in several stages, according to a clear plan.

Design Codes

At any modern enterprise, of course, first of all, conditions must be created for the most efficient implementation of the technological process. It is this task that is considered a priority in the design of the plant. Also, when performing such work, engineers must take into account the comfort of future personnel and their safety.

industrial enterprise

Comply on the territory of our country, for example, the following plant design standards are required:

  • workshops of the enterprise should, if possible, have a strictly rectangular shape in plan;

  • spans should be built like thisin such a way that all the necessary equipment could be placed inside them in the most optimal way;

  • best of all, if the roof of the plant is simple - single-pitched or double-pitched.

In addition to the basic norms, design organizations should also be guided by recommendations, as well as technical instructions issued by industry research organizations and institutes.

Urban planning code: building permit

Of course, the design of any industrial facility, first of all, should be coordinated with the relevant authorities. Such permission may be issued based on the provisions of several documents.

Layout of an industrial enterprise

For example, the Town Planning Code regulates the construction of various kinds of objects, including industrial ones, in our country. Permission to build an industrial enterprise, according to the laws in force in our country, is possible only after:

  • preparing a package of documents for submission to the appropriate authorities;

  • applying for a permit.

Coordination for the construction of industrial facilities, customers usually entrust the same company that performs the design. In addition to the project itself, you will most likely need the following documents to obtain a permit:

  • note with explanations;

  • Layout of workshops, developed taking into account the conditions of urban planningplan;

  • materials on the organization of fire and environmental safety, agreed with relevant departments.

After the construction of an industrial facility is completed, it is also necessary to obtain permission from the local government to put it into operation.

Design stages

The basis for starting such work can be:

  • directive from the relevant industry ministry;

  • decision of the shareholders' meeting.

This work is carried out by licensed civil engineering companies, of course, according to a well-developed plan. For enterprises of different sectors of the national economy, there are design nuances. But in most cases, such work includes two main stages:

  • pre-project preparation;

  • actual drafting of the project.

Design stages

Pre-project preparation. The essence of the process

At this stage of the design of the plant, a feasibility study of the feasibility of its construction (feasibility study) is carried out. For this purpose, specialists perform work on the collection and preparation of initial data. Also, this stage in most cases includes such a procedure as drawing up the actual design contract. This document subsequently regulates all financial and legal relations between the customer and the developer.

What includesdesign

After the contract between the parties is drawn up, the specialists of the design organization proceed to the following procedures:

  • selecting a site for construction;

  • project development by stages.

At the final stage, the finished project documentation of the plant is approved after passing all the necessary examinations.

Developing a plan by stages

At this stage, all planning activities for the future of the enterprise are carried out taking into account its specifics. But in any case, one- and two-stage design of plants are distinguished. When using the first technique, general techno-work planning is carried out. The second technology involves the phased compilation:

  • working draft.

  • technical project;

This planning procedure is usually used when it is necessary to build large enterprises with complex technological processes.

What is a technical project

At the first stage of planning a plant, experts usually conduct research to determine the feasibility and feasibility of building it on a given site. Next engineers:

  • choose the actual site for construction with its justification;

  • ensure the right choice of sources for construction (raw materials, fuel, water, energy);

  • develop the rationale for the mode of production;

  • developing methods of erectionprojected facilities and calculate production capacity;

  • calculate the cost of construction.

Factory structure

Working draft

This document is a space-planning decision, on the basis of which the contractors subsequently carry out the construction and equipment of the plant. Work projects consist of both text and graphic documents. In any case, such a document should be drawn up in such a way that:

  • the contractor received clear instructions for his actions;

  • customer got the best construction solution to save money.

With a properly drawn up working project, the possibility of errors in the process of erecting and equipping production facilities is excluded. In most cases, such a document includes:

  • approving part with a list of technical and economic indicators and characteristics of the object;

  • architectural designs of workshops;

  • working documentation - a set of drawings and text documents required for construction.

Plant equipment

Possible design cost

The price for this kind of work can, of course, be different. The cost of designing plants depends on their specialization, planned capacities, degree of equipment and other things.

For example, prices for drawing up a 1000 m2 workshop required for construction2documentation can be:

  • drawing up an explanatory note for obtaining permission - about 15 thousand rubles;

  • land plot planning - 60 thousand;

  • architectural solutions - 95 thousand rubles;

  • constructive solutions - 100 thousand rubles;

  • engineering communications - 200-250 thousand rubles;

  • technical solutions - 45 thousand rubles;

  • construction organization project - 20 thousand rubles;

  • estimate - 50 thousand rubles. and more.

In total, the finished project of the plant can cost the customer, thus, several hundred thousand rubles. The amount is rather big.

Design cost

Designing an enterprise of building materials, products and structures. As an example

The plan for the construction of production facilities, as already mentioned, should be drawn up, including taking into account their specifics. For example, how can a project for a precast concrete plant be developed?

The construction site of an enterprise of such specialization should be chosen near the main transport arteries of the region. It is also desirable that there are sources of raw materials in the immediate vicinity of the future plant:

  • sand deposits;

  • cement factories;

  • crushed stone deposits.

When developing justifications for the mode of production, in this case, it is determined, among other things,with a view of the equipment for the future plant. For an enterprise manufacturing reinforced concrete products, in our time, a conveyor method of manufacturing products is usually chosen. At the same time, designers are determined, among other things, with the type of such equipment, which can be:

  • periodic action;

  • continuous.

Most often in our time at the factories for the production of concrete products, lines of the first type are installed, consisting of 6-15 posts. Such equipment allows to produce products with a rhythm of 12-15 minutes.

When calculating capacities when designing a plant for the production of concrete products, engineers determine, among other things, the need for materials - hourly, daily, annual, and also select the characteristics of the technological line. Further, the specialists proceed to the development of the structure of the enterprise's warehouses: cement, sand and crushed stone, finished products, fittings. At the same time, engineers determine the required area and capacity of such premises.

Also, designers are required to draw up a master plan for the plant for the production of concrete products. That is, they divide its territory into zones - pre-factory, production, auxiliary, warehouse. Roads near the enterprise and on its territory are planned in such a way that the transportation of raw materials, intermediate and finished products in the future is carried out by the shortest route.

Reinforced concrete products

Responsibility of the designer and customer

The hired design organization, when drawing up a plant construction plan, must ensure safety, reliabilityand cost-effectiveness of future facilities. Also, such a campaign is responsible for compliance with all regulatory documents, solves design-related issues and guarantees the completeness and effectiveness of the activities provided for in the project.

The customer, in turn, must prepare the commissioned facilities for operation in time during the construction of the plant. Also, the responsibilities of the initiator of the organization of the enterprise include the procedure for testing equipment idle, setting up technological processes and commissioning capacities on time.

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