Good quality goods are required not only by buyers. Sellers also need it - otherwise the consumer will go to competitors. Even in the case of the activities of the most reliable suppliers or factories producing non-food products (not to mention food products), sometimes a product may appear on the counter that does not meet the expectations of customers, the store owner or inspection authorities.
That is why one of the most important areas in the work of every business is a thorough and detailed check of such an indicator as the quality of goods and products.
What is the mechanism of such verification? How is it carried out? Let's talk about the definition of this very concept - the quality of the goods. The following wording is considered popular among domestic experts. Commercial quality is understood as the totality of consumer characteristics of the product being sold (we are talking about selling in a distribution network, a separate store or an online market),ensuring that it is fit for its intended purpose.
Marketing specialists formulate the concept of quality in the form of requirements (of a certain volume and type) regarding those features that form the most important consumer characteristics of any product. Normally, any product offered to the consumer must comply with certain norms and standards, as well as subjective consumer expectations. These are the main conditions for the quality of the goods.
What indicators are we talking about?
Let's talk about the key criteria that reflect this dependence. What kind of indicators characterizing the properties of goods are we interested in? In essence, they are very diverse. According to the conclusion of Russian experts, there is a certain set of them. First of all, we are talking about those characteristics of the product that determine the purpose of the latter.
An example is plastic utensils, the purpose of which is one-time use at picnics and camping trips. Another type of utensils is tableware, which is used regularly for a long time. It goes without saying that the requirements for each of the above products will vary significantly.
The next criterion is reliability. Most often we are talking about goods that belong to the category of technically complex. Another option is products that, in the very nature of their use, provide for a certain wear (those that require the strength of mechanisms, parts, as well asconstruction and material conformity to certain industry standards).
The third indicator is the one that reflects standardization and certification. By default, it is considered that a product manufactured in accordance with GOST has a higher quality than one for which the requirements were significantly lower. Possession of the appropriate certificate (confirming such compliance) can be considered among the criteria that can seriously affect the choice of the consumer.
The next item can be called the characteristics of a product of a physical nature - we are talking about color, size, design, ergonomics, etc. In this case, you can evaluate based on the subjective opinion of consumers about goods (about quality), i.e. on the perception of a particular buyer. Or to certain norms and standards inherent in the production of products of this particular type.
Priority criteria in each case are selected depending on the type of product. Sometimes an analysis of a complex nature can be carried out with a versatile study of the properties of the goods. In other cases, the number of indicators used to characterize the product is very small (for example, it is examined only for compliance with GOST).
Let's talk about standardization and certification
What are these concepts? Standardization and certification are among the most important of those categories that are used in the analysis of commercial quality. Compliance of the manufactured product with certain parameters is determined in accordance with officially approved categories that exist as laws or industry standards. Thus, according toAccording to the experts, the fixing of the relevant requirements can take place within the framework of one of the two established mechanisms mentioned above.
What is meant by standardization? The task of this mechanism is to reflect the activities of various organizations and government agencies, research institutions, etc., whose work is aimed at designating and setting all the most important characteristics and standards for the production of goods. The purpose of this activity is to ensure a uniform approach to the procedure for evaluating commercial quality. In our country, the key sources of those requirements that are used for the standardization procedure exist in the form of GOSTs or technical regulations.
Let's move on to certification
What is meant by certification? Speaking about this mechanism, they mean the assessment of the activities of manufacturing firms in the production of goods. This also includes the procedure for evaluating the products themselves in order to determine their compliance with accepted standards and rules.
As a result of such work, the manufacturing company acquires a certain document confirming the fact that the manufactured product has all the necessary properties that are provided for by the existing norms and requirements in this area.
As part of this type of activity in our country, a number of documents are issued, the most common of which include the so-called certificate of conformity. Its presence implies the conformity of the manufactured product with the same main sources.requirements and norms - GOSTs.
About quality assessment methods
It would not hurt the consumer to know what methods determine the quality of certain types of products, how they are classified. According to one of the models adopted by domestic experts, a number of objective methods are distinguished that help analyze product quality indicators. All of them, in turn, are divided into a number of additional types.
Let's talk about the so-called objective methods. One of the most common methods in this category is the measurement procedure. The basis of this criterion is the analysis of measurements and calculations of certain features and properties of the product. The method most often involves a number of technical means, as well as software, auxiliary materials (reagents, etc.).
Measurement helps to determine aspects that reflect most of the physical properties of the product (mass, shape, etc.) or performance. For example, we can talk about voltage in certain areas of microcircuits of electronic devices. According to the method under consideration, the results are supposed to be recorded in indicators of a standard type - grams, joules, watts, etc.
Another method, similarly categorized as objective, is called registration. It is based on the use of algorithms for monitoring, counting, fixing certain processes or events. What does this mean in practice? An example is the study of an electronic device for operation.under specified conditions of use.
Along with the registration method, the so-called calculation method is often used. Its principle is to simulate the very specified processes or events.
Other varieties of objective methods
Sometimes the quality assessment is carried out according to a preliminary calculation carried out according to certain criteria. Most often, it is used not only in relation to the final product, but also in the production process, for example, when passing goods along a conveyor. That is, preliminary calculations provide the necessary production and technical characteristics of the manufactured product.
Besides, there are methods of a mathematical nature. They are used most often in combination with registration or measuring methods. They are needed so that the results of the study can be represented in the form of a certain rational type model, which can later be used as a template, and also to ensure the greatest accuracy of calculations.
Russian experts also classify the so-called trial operation as an objective method. It is used when it is required to determine the results of the functioning of the product in practice. For example, we can talk about a certain type of equipment operated in different conditions. Moreover, the environment may differ in terms of noise level, environmental requirements, degree of energy consumption, etc.
How it looks like in practice
In certain cases, use the specified method (experimentalexploitation) in solving problems of a social nature. For example, manufacturers are trying to find out the rate and degree of wear of a particular type of clothing made from a particular material. Participants of the experiment receive samples of textile products for trial operation. The task of researchers is to wear (exploit) items of clothing with informing researchers on all issues of interest to them, passing the necessary information or samples of clothing for analysis according to the algorithms adopted in advance.
This method - pilot operation - is often used in cases where it is required to establish the limit mode in which this or that equipment can operate. For example, you want to find out how long a particular machine can run under full load without changing any parts.
Thus, this method has a very wide range of potential applications. Most often involved in the study of the quality of non-food products. This is due to the fact that food products are consumed, as a rule, in a fairly small number of likely environments. In addition, food products are distinguished by a not so wide range of objective characteristics. For a given product segment, evaluation is usually carried out using the following group of methods, called subjective.
About subjective evaluation methods
Another common name for this group of methods, thanks to which it is possible to introduce control over the quality of goods, is heuristic. A number of experts do not make fundamental distinctions between the twothe specified groups. One of the most common and convenient ways to assess the quality of products is the so-called organoleptic. With its help, the product is checked for color, smell and taste or other consumer properties that the human senses are capable of determining.
Most often, in this convenient way, the quality of food group goods is assessed, because for them the corresponding indicators play a decisive role. But this method is also suitable for studying many types of devices that are technically complex.
An example is the task of determining the sufficient saturation of color shades transmitted by a smartphone display, or the degree of sensitivity of the buttons of an electronic device.
The number of subjective, among other things, include the so-called expert method. In this case, the quality of the goods is checked by a group of competent specialists with relevant experience. They can use any of the above methods and assessment methods.
Besides, experts refer to the number of subjective and approach, called sociological. Its application involves conducting research and surveys, the purpose of which is to find out the opinion of consumers. The subject of such studies may concern, for example, the correlation between the price of a product and its quality.
What's the difference?
Unlike objective methods, where certain standardized values serve as units of measurement, with a subjective approach, the situationlooks different. After all, the concept of taste, smell, color (etc.) of a food or other product is a criterion in itself not too strict. With this approach, the Russian commodity research community usually uses a methodology according to which goods can be evaluated according to a certain system of points. This criterion is rather conditional, but many experts recognize it as convenient and, accordingly, it is very widespread.
Competent experts, based on indicators related to the color, taste, smell of the product, rate the product under investigation on a certain scale. It can be ten-point for a certain category of goods. For others, with a range of twenty, one hundred, etc. units. The essence of the scoring system itself is to evaluate the key features of the product in conditional terms. Sometimes criteria such as packaging design, product appearance, etc. are taken into account.
Quality acceptance of goods
This procedure is one of the most important business processes in which there are regular studies of the degree of product quality. It is preceded by the procedure for issuing the product for sale (or shipping it to the customer).
How is the acceptance of goods in terms of quality? Most often, this process is distinguished by a very high degree of standardization. The accepted goods are carefully examined for compliance with the criteria that are prescribed in the relevant GOSTs or various industry regulatory sources. For the acceptance procedure itself, there may also be standardized algorithms officially laid down indocument flow of the enterprise.
A number of firms, for example, have instructions approved by management that directly and quite strictly regulate the quality acceptance procedure. In addition, similar documents are created during inter-corporate interaction between the customer of the product and its supplier.
Acceptance is carried out by employees of the company who are among the financially responsible persons. Most often, its main stages are as follows:
- According to the contract, the quality of the goods is subject to research after the procedure for checking its total quantity and completeness of the delivery. In addition, the appearance and compliance with the accompanying documents are checked.
- After the quantity is checked, the quality of the goods is examined according to the accepted key indicators. They are determined in advance depending on the subjective characteristics of the product.
- Acceptance is documented (a certificate of product quality is drawn up).
- Relevant information is loaded into the accounting system or recorded by other sources. According to the accepted workflow, the registration of the acceptance procedure is most often carried out using various kinds of invoices and invoices. Most firms use unified forms that comply with industry or state standards and are approved by the State Statistics Committee.
Importance of the product for the consumer
The concept of product quality has its practical significance, of course, not only in terms of compliance with the formal acceptance procedure. Most importantanother - the product must attract the consumer. In accordance with this criterion of the sold product, any manufacturer or supplier must be interested. After all, the attractiveness of the product for the buyer serves as a guarantee that the product will be sold, and the buyer will return to the store again.
In today's business, superior product quality is one of the key benefits of a competitive plan. That is why most large companies have a well-developed structure of departments, whose task is to supply showcases with the best samples of the products sold. That direction of activity, which concerns the search for the right suppliers, the acceptance of goods, the study of a number of features inherent in individual brands, is quite important and is the subject of concern for specially created departments and services.
Another very significant incentive that encourages businessmen to maintain the quality of their own products at the proper level is the requirements of the law. What does the law say about product quality? The state is directly interested in satisfying consumer rights. Most experts consider the legislation of the Russian Federation directed with a significant bias towards the interests of the client.
In particular, a number of provisions of legal acts guarantee consumers the mandatory return of goods, the quality of which "does not live up" to the standard. In practice, the implementation of such an exchange most often requires the organization of appropriate expertise. Its purpose is to identify the reasons why the product does not meet certain criteria.
As appropriatepossible exchange and goods of good quality. This is possible subject to a certain set of conditions.
Let's talk about product quality expertise
What is this very quality examination? This procedure consists in a study (conducted at the initiative of the buyer or seller) of a particular product in order to find out whether it is in fact a product of inadequate quality. And also - in establishing the possible causes of such a discrepancy.
In practice, in most cases, such a procedure is carried out when the consumer insists on returning the goods, the quality of which did not suit him, or demands a refund of the funds paid for it. Thus, the sellers have the opportunity to make sure that the problems that have arisen with the goods are not the fault of the client. That is why they initiate the examination.
Such a procedure should be independent and carried out by special competent persons. These include specialized laboratories or expert bureaus.
Below we publish a claim (sample) for the return of goods of inadequate quality. This is a universal form that can be used for different types of products and in different situations.
The significance of the results of such ongoing research cannot be overestimated when it comes to the application of consumer protection law. The quality of the goods here is at the forefront. If it is proved that the seller is at fault in the sale of products of unsuitable quality (or the product wasdelivered in this form by the manufacturer), the customer has the right to demand that it be replaced with a similar one. Another option often used in practice is to satisfy the buyer's demand for the return of funds paid for goods of inadequate quality.
Both parties - buyer and seller - can challenge the results of the study in court.