The efficiency of an enterprise directly depends on how well its departments are structured and duties are divided among employees. To do this, in the management of the company, the division of labor is used, namely, the coordination of powers from the worker to the boss and the distribution by functionality. In order for this scheme to be as productive as possible, you need to know the principles and features of production differentiation. With the right distribution of work, employees will fulfill their job instructions with high quality, which will generally ensure the implementation of the strategic plan of the organization.
Division of labor is the key to the success of an enterprise
The task of managing the company is to increase the performance of production and the dedication of personnel, to ensure a high level of activity of employees and to fulfillassigned tasks in a timely manner. This is facilitated by the differentiation of the work of the company's employees, which in management is called "horizontal and vertical division of labor". The first concept is associated with the process of manufacturing products, the second - with management. Such a system makes it possible to delegate to each performer the type and scope of duties that corresponds to his specialization and qualifications, professional and personal qualities, which makes his contribution to the common cause indispensable.
Detailing the process of work
To increase the level of efficiency, management applies a horizontal division of labor - this is the distribution of the production process into separate types of work, specific operations and procedures that are performed by the relevant specialists. It depends on the technological complexity of the activity, its scale and provision of labor resources. Qualitative and quantitative differentiation of labor, its typification allow you to quickly and properly perform the tasks.
Types of horizontal separation
The detail of the production process is divided into three types:
- Functional (depending on the training and professionalism of employees).
- Commodity-industry (division into types of activities according to the specifics of labor).
- Based on qualifications (based on the criteria for the complexity of the work performed).
Horizontal division of labor is the effective performance of duties by each employee and full dedication toposition.
Leading the organization
Company management (management) is a type of activity aimed at achieving optimal performance by an enterprise with the correct use of company resources (material and labor), based on the application of various management principles and mechanisms. The whole process is carried out in the conditions of modern market changes.
The organization's management system uses a vertical division of labor - this is the separation of managerial functions from executive functions and their differentiation. In order for the whole system to work smoothly, it is necessary that each department has a leader who controls its activities. The more complex the technological process, the greater the number of curators it provides. To do this, managers are distributed to different levels depending on the functions they perform (which is already a horizontal division of labor in the organization). The tasks performed by managers cover the following areas:
- Management of the company as a whole (determination of business prospects).
- Exploring and applying new technologies.
- Economic (drafting a strategic plan, developing marketing support, stimulating employees).
- Operational (writing a plan of specific actions to solve the tasks, distribution of responsibilities, delegation of authority, instructing employees).
- Monitoring of staff performance with subsequentcoordination.
At the same time, the horizontal division of labor in management includes two factors: intellectual (studying the state of the problem and subsequent decision-making by management) and strong-willed (its direct implementation).
Managing activities are carried out by a manager - a specialist with appropriate professional training. He organizes and supervises the process of production and marketing of products, performs administrative functions and monitors the maintenance of the economic part.
Depending on the level of training and authority of employees in the managerial level, there are three levels of leaders:
- The highest - top manager (these are directors, members of the company's board; they develop the organization's development strategy and represent the interests of the owners of the enterprise, they know that the correct horizontal division of labor is the key to productivity, so they decide how production will be structured).
- Middle manager (heads of departments, departments, workshops).
- Lower level - entry manager (responsible for the work of groups, brigades, subdivisions).
The horizontal division of managerial labor ensures the implementation of the planned scope of work and allows you to coordinate the functions of all departments.
To succeed, every company develops a strategy for its activities. At the same time, it defines clear goals - these are the final results that the company wantssee after a certain period of time. They set standards for assessing the performance of the enterprise and are the benchmarks in the work. As a rule, goals are aimed either at achieving some indicators, or at maintaining existing factors (and improving them). They are placed at different time intervals. There is a pattern: the longer the period for obtaining the planned result, the more uncertain the outcome of the activity, and vice versa: the shorter it is, the more obvious the result. The horizontal division of labor is a way that allows you to implement the planned plan in the required time frame.
The company's management mainly sets the following goals:
- Receiving income, including increasing the profitability of the enterprise (is a priority).
- Improve management effectiveness.
- Satisfying the interests of the consumer.
- Resolving public issues.
Specification of desired results
Goals are the metrics a company is striving for. In addition, the management of the enterprise always solves a number of problems. In fact, these are the same goals, only more specific. They are calculated for a certain period of time and have quantitative characteristics. Tasks are a list of types of work that must be done by a specified date within a specified stage. They can be roughly divided into three categories: functions related to objects, people and information.
Any production involves the following tasks:
- Ensuring the profitability of the enterprise as a result of its functioning.
- Organization of the production process in the most optimal way, efficient use of human and material resources.
- Achieving a stable position of the company in the market of goods and services, taking into account changes in the level of consumer demand.
Each of them provides quantitative indicators so that you can monitor the effectiveness of the enterprise, track the achievement of goals and set new ones.
Horizontal and vertical division of labor in an organization is one of the fundamental principles of management. A properly structured system of production and management leads to the release of the potential of each employee, ensures the most efficient use of the company's labor and material resources and, as a result, the fulfillment of tasks and the achievement of the goals set by management.