Primary accounting documents are used in every enterprise. All of them are important in their own way and must be taken into account in the work. They are drawn up according to the forms of primary accounting documents of accounting registers. A complete list of them and design rules are presented in this article.
Speaking of primary documents, they mean those papers that are responsible for each of the economic events that occurred at the enterprise. When preparing this kind of documentation, each accountant must remember that there are no specific and clearly fixed forms of primary documents and accounting registers. The choice rests with the enterprise. It is it that decides which of the possible forms it is convenient for it to use in its activities. It is also important to indicate all the details when filling out the form of primary accounting documents. They just have a mandatory list from which nothing can be excluded.It is worth noting that information about which form of primary accounting documents an enterprise uses must be indicated without fail in the accounting policy of the company. This is a very important point.
List of primary accounting documents
The primary list includes nine important papers:
- Consignment note.
- Settlement forms.
- Act of acceptance.
- Documents on the movement of fixed assets.
- Payment orders.
- Paper cash transactions.
- Expense report.
- Accounting reference.
- Act prescribing netting.
This list of primary accounting documents is generally accepted and used by all enterprises.
This primary accounting document is designed to reflect all movements of inventory items. The invoice must contain the data specified also in the invoice. It is worth noting that this paper must be drawn up in two copies. As assurance of this document, the signature of the head and the seal of the organization are used. As for the invoice form, enterprises usually use TORG-12. Usually it is used by wholesale companies. The form must contain the details of both the contract on the basis of which the transaction is carried out, and the detailsconsignment note. It also includes information about the participants in the operation and about the goods being transferred. The bill of lading must contain information about the attached papers. As for signatures, they are put by both sides. It is important to know that those organizations whose work does not involve the use of printing have the right not to certify this type of document with it.
The payroll is compiled according to the T-49 form. The form of this primary accounting document is numbered 0301009. Its use is limited only to enterprises conducting budgetary or government activities. According to this document, a complete calculation and further payroll of employees is carried out. The main data of this kind of form are the time sheet, the tariff rate, the amount of deductions and offsets. Other organizations, as well as individual entrepreneurs, issue salaries to their staff in the form 0504401. The time sheet also serves as the basis for accruals here. The need for this documentation is determined by the need to reduce the workflow in the organization. This primary accounting document is compiled by accounting staff, who, after preparing the papers, transfer them to the cashier. After all the funds prescribed in the document are issued to the personnel, it should be returned to the accounting department. The form handed over to the cashiers must be signed by the head of the enterprise.
Act of acceptance
The reason for issuing this primary accounting document is the transfer to the customer of works or services performed by the enterprise. He confirms that all agreements have been met and the customer is satisfied with the results. The form of the act does not have a mandatory established format. But there is a list of data that it should contain. It includes such marks as the name of the company, the date the document was generated, the reflection of the person who compiled the document, the format of the work, the positions and signatures of the responsible persons. There is also a unified form of KS-2. It does not apply to all types of works or services. it can only be used if the contractor is engaged in capital construction. If this form is finalized, it can be used for construction and installation work at civil or residential facilities.
Documents on the movement of fixed assets
In this case, the employees of the enterprise use the following types of primary documentation:
- Form OS-1 - an act describing the fact of acceptance or transfer of fixed assets. This form of primary accounting documents is used in the case of the transfer of objects. It should be noted that buildings or structures are not included.
- OS-1a - this form applies to buildings or structures.
- OS-4 - issued in case of write-off of fixed assets of the enterprise.
- INV-1 is an inventory list. Suitable for fixing a facttaking inventory.
- INV-1a - suitable for inventory intangible assets.
Each of these forms has a unified form. Its use is mandatory in the preparation of primary accounting documentation.
This paper is drawn up in accordance with the form OKUD 0401060. When forming the form, several steps should be followed:
- Introducing the number and date of the payment.
- Indication of the type of payment in a special column. In this case, you can use a mark such as "Urgent" or "Mail".
- Register the status of the payer. There are 28 codes from 01 to 28. These can be taxpayers, banks, credit organizations and others.
- Introducing the payment amount. It must be written in words and numbers.
- TIN, KPP, name, bank details should be indicated as the details of the sender.
- You should also enter similar details of the recipient.
- This stage involves specifying additional codes and ciphers - type, sequence and code.
- Introducing information about the subsequent payment.
- Signing the PP.
Depending on the type of payment, this form is filled out in full or in part.
Paper cash transactions
In this case, it is possible to draw up two fundamental forms. The first one isincoming cash order, the second - expenditure. So, PKO is issued in cases where new funds are received at the cash desk. The format of this primary accounting document is regulated by the State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Fill it out on paper in the form of KO-1 or in electronic form. The document is signed by the chief accountant and remains for storage in the accounting department. As for the account cash warrant, the features of its design are similar. The only difference is the purpose. It is filled in in cases of issuance of funds. Another of its features can be called the vastness of the filling options - it can be Word and Excel. Primary accounting documentation of this type is drawn up in the form KO-2.
Like all primary documents and accounting registers, this form is a report on the activities of the enterprise. In fact, an advance report is drawn up in cases where an employee needs to account for the funds received by him from the cash desk and spent on the needs of the company. The main information included in this form is:
- The amount of funds received by an employee of the enterprise.
- The purpose for which the funds were spent.
- Actual expenses.
- The balance or surplus that the employee had to pay from his budget.
These items are certainly very important, but they are considered invalid if the advance report form is not attachedsupporting documents. As for the design of this type of primary documentation, it is simplified due to the presence of a unified form. It is called - AO-1. If the company wishes to develop its own form, this is also permitted. The most important thing is to enter all the necessary details into the document. Most often, a unified form is used in the work of enterprises. The form is issued in a single copy within three days from the date of issue of money. The document must be approved by the head of the employee who took the report. You can submit an advance report in both paper and electronic form.
This type of primary documentation is issued under three conditions:
- If there is a need to correct a mistake made in the process of generating standard accounting transactions.
- For an operation requiring manual spreading of accruals.
- When registering transactions that involve non-standard accounting documents.
Most often, an accounting statement is still used to indicate errors. This document can be called universal, as it is suitable both for the current period and for any others. The advantage of this form for the current period is the ability to keep the correct turnover amounts. This is realized by introducing a reversal or by posting additional amounts. A clear established form of an accounting statement applies only to government agencies. Other taxpayers may use their own form. It is only important that it includes the followinginformation:
- Organization name.
- The title of the document and the date of its formation.
- The essence of the operation.
- Amounts and quantities requested.
- Signatures of all persons responsible.
It is worth noting that if an enterprise plans to use its own form, then it must indicate this fact in the accounting policy.
Act prescribing netting
The essence of this form is to reflect the repayment of mutual debts between the enterprise and the employee. In order to carry out a set-off, it is necessary to fill out an act and an agreement on the behavior of this operation. The act is drawn up at the stage when the enterprise puts forward a counter-debt to its employee and it is convenient for the parties to set it off against the debt. If such conditions are convenient for both participants, then a special agreement is drawn up confirming the desire of the parties to set off.