We all want to live in a comfortable home where it will always be warm, despite the weather outside. But few people know that it depends on the energy efficiency of the building, which is determined at the stage of drawing up project documentation. In recent years, the state has been striving to develop new requirements for this indicator, which should significantly reduce the amount of energy consumed for the life support of a structure. The fact is that this factor can be called decisive when we are talking about the environmental situation in the country and the world in the global sense of the word. Many states have been working to improve the energy efficiency of buildings of all categories for decades. For some time, our country remained aloof from this process, but gradually it also began to be included in it. Today in the article we will talk about the energy efficiency of buildings and structures in general, as well as measures for itsincrease.
Learning the terminology of the question
Not every layman understands what exactly is meant when we talk about the energy efficiency of a building. Most often, this term is confused with the concept of energy saving. And although in fact they are quite close in meaning, they are still different definitions.
Energy efficiency of buildings and structures is usually understood as the ratio of the pronounced beneficial effect of the spent energy resources to their amount required to obtain a similar result.
It can be said that with the highest energy efficiency class of energy resources, the minimum amount is spent. Some experts call this term also the expedient use of available energy.
In order for the reader not to confuse this definition with energy saving in the future, let's clarify that energy saving means reducing energy consumption for the same requests. That is, for people, this is associated with certain restrictions, while the high energy efficiency of the building allows its residents to function in the usual mode, but get a much greater return.
Energy efficiency situation today
For almost fifty years, the world community has been trying to introduce new energy efficiency standards. Some states adopt special programs that can significantly increase this coefficient. However, the world industry still consumes about half of all energy resources.Moreover, a side effect of this process is the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which numerous associations of environmentalists are trying to control. Today, international organizations have adopted a single standard that includes items on energy efficiency.
There are three states in the world whose economy is entirely based on the consumption of a large amount of energy resources. The indicator of the gross external product depends entirely on this factor. The three powers that fall into this category, in addition to China and the United States, include our country. She ranks third on this list.
It can be clarified that our industry, together with residential buildings, consumes more than half of all energy resources in the Russian Federation. This figure is catastrophic, and the situation has reached such an extent that it requires an immediate solution. In this regard, the state is developing a number of measures and regulations that will regulate the energy efficiency of industrial buildings and the residential sector. We will talk about them a little later.
Category of buildings subject to new state regulations
The following buildings fall under the code of practice (SP) for the energy efficiency of buildings:
- residential sector (high-rise construction in cities and other settlements);
- buildings related to social infrastructure facilities;
- storage facilities (the temperature regime in them should be set at twelve degrees Celsius and above);
- buildings intended for storage and repair of equipment (area from fifty squares);
- Apartment buildings up to three stories high.
It is noteworthy that all the adopted standards regulate the calculations of the energy efficiency of buildings not only at the stage of creating project documentation. The set of rules controls the entire construction process up to the commissioning of the building. Thus, improving energy efficiency turns into a strategy, but it does not set the exact indicators that builders and designers should focus on.
Buildings not covered by state energy efficiency law
The legislation provides for buildings that cannot be regulated in any way by the previously mentioned codes of rules and regulations. These include the following properties:
- buildings of cult significance;
- monuments of history and culture;
- temporary buildings that can operate no more than two years;
- residential buildings falling under the category of individual construction (the number of floors should not exceed three);
- country and garden houses;
- buildings in the "auxiliary use" category;
- structures that stand apart from others and do not exceed fifty square meters in area.
Today, all the listed categories of buildings can be put into operation regardless of theirenergy efficiency. Public buildings and residential buildings included in this group should not contain any information about energy efficiency in their project documentation. Moreover, this will not be an obstacle to obtaining a permit for the construction or operation of premises.
Building energy efficiency classes and benchmarks
This term refers to the energy efficiency of a building or equipment during its operation. Information of this order is usually included in the energy efficiency passport of a building or equipment.
To date, it is customary to apply seven classes of energy efficiency of the building. They are indicated by Latin letters from "A" to "G", where "A" is the highest indicator, and "G" is the lowest of all available.
In recent years, subclasses have been defined separately. You can determine the energy efficiency class of a building using them if you look at the project documentation. For categories "A" and "B" there are two kinds of subclasses: "+" and "++". All these nuances must be considered when purchasing any equipment or during the construction of a building.
It is noteworthy that all modern appliances and various objects must be labeled indicating the energy efficiency class. It is set by the manufacturer or the commission that accepts design documentation for an industrial or residential building.
Calculations and determination of the energy efficiency class of a building are carried out according to a certain formula. It takes into account deviationsnormative and specific values, while it is worth keeping in mind the basic values. The calculation of the energy efficiency of a building of a residential and industrial facility always begins with the determination of the base level. It is customary to take class “C” for it.
Building Energy Efficiency Passport
We could not ignore this important document, which is directly related to the topic of our today's article. If you have something to do with construction, then you should know that this important document is necessary in order to put a residential facility or industrial building into operation.
It confirms the fact that the building fully complies with all accepted standards and requirements, and is also equipped with the latest generation energy metering devices. It is known that thanks to this passport, you can even get property tax benefits. Only those facilities that receive the highest energy efficiency class fall under this category.
Interestingly, all new buildings and buildings that have undergone reconstruction or major repairs should receive a passport. The document is based on design papers and calculations, as well as an on-site inspection of the building. It includes thermal imaging. Thanks to it, you can always clearly see in which places the building loses heat. In this regard, recommendations are made to eliminate the identified problems. If it is impossible to solve them, then a decision is made to assign an energy efficiency class to the building.
Any passport is issued according to the establishedstandard, it is listed as form number thirty-five and was approved approximately three years ago.
Documents required to apply for an energy passport
In order to put the building into operation, you will need to issue a passport for it. We have already mentioned this in the article, but it should be borne in mind that this document cannot be drawn up without providing a large number of papers. Most of them are included in the project documentation.
First of all, the commission will be interested in the architectural part of the plan. It includes floor plans, basement and wall sections. In this case, it is required to specify the thickness of the materials and their full characteristics. Most often, this information is contained in full in the building project approved before construction.
In addition to the above data, the commission will need copies of several sections of the project. All of them will relate to energy consumption and savings. Experts will consider issues of ventilation, heating, water supply, sanitation and electricity.
If the developer initially provides all the documentation in full, then the time for issuing a passport is significantly reduced. With an approved document, you can contact higher authorities in order to put the facility into operation.
Tax reduction depending on energy efficiency class
If the energy efficiency of a residential building put into operation by the organization will meet the highest standards, then the company is en titled to receive tax benefits for three years. This termcounted from the date the building was put into operation.
To receive benefits, you must provide all project documentation and energy passport of the building. It should be borne in mind that only those buildings that have been assigned the following energy efficiency classes can apply for tax reductions: “B”, “B+”, “B++”, “A”.
In order for the commission to make decisions faster and easier, a table was developed and approved, according to which decisions are made on the energy efficiency of apartment buildings. It includes almost all classes and their names. We will list it as follows:
- Very high class. It is designated by the letters "A", "A +" and "A ++". This category implies that the deviation of the unit of account from the normalized one is measured in the range from forty to sixty percent with a minus sign.
- High. The designations “B” and “B+” indicate that the deviation is from minus fifteen to minus forty percent inclusive. Usually, such indicators can be achieved by economic stimulation of the regions.
- Normal. We already wrote that the class "C" is taken as the basic standard, and the marking "C +" and "C-" can also be attributed to it. The deviation value in this case fluctuates in the range of plus and minus indicators: from minus fifteen to plus fifteen. Most buildings should comply with this energy efficiency class.
All of the listed classes apply in cases of construction and design of new buildings, as well as the reconstruction of alreadyavailable.
When it comes to buildings already in operation, the following energy efficiency classes are acceptable for them:
- Reduced. It is denoted by the Latin letter "D", and in this case the deviation is from fifteen to fifty percent plus. Such buildings consume a large amount of energy resources during operation, therefore, in accordance with Russian legislation, it is customary to reconstruct them.
- Low. If you see in the documents the energy efficiency of the building, indicated by the letter "E", then know that the deviation value exceeds fifty percent with a plus sign. Such structures, if necessary, can be reconstructed, but most often they are demolished.
According to the given data, each developer can find out whether he will receive tax benefits.
Energy efficiency calculation
To draw up project documentation, the developer must carry out certain calculations on the energy efficiency of industrial buildings and residential facilities. They consist in determining the amount of heat energy consumed in order to create conditions for the life support of all buildings. It is measured in kilowatts per square meter per year. It is noteworthy that buildings for different purposes fall under three categories of energy consumption.
They can be given as a list:
- Normative. This level implies the energy consumption of buildings when using the normative thermal protection of external fences.
- Comparative. He issome middle ground. To derive this value, data on the energy consumption of different buildings of the same purpose are usually taken.
- Settlement. This level is determined during the design process of the structure. It is based on information about the equipment that will be used during the operation of the building, the modes of operation of the building, and similar data.
It is noteworthy that if the project documentation provides for the use of different types of energy resources, then calculations will have to be made for each category separately.
Increasing Energy Efficiency: General Recommendations
At the state level, a program has been adopted to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, which includes several levels and points. Moreover, their implementation should take place at different stages of construction, in addition, the stages of reconstruction and commissioning are also taken into account.
In general, energy efficiency can be improved by reducing heat loss. They are usually quite significant. For example, in the cold season, about forty percent of the energy is spent on heating outdoor air. If we take this amount as one hundred percent, then the walls contribute to the loss of forty percent of heat, and another twenty percent can be equally divided into door and window openings, roofing and ventilation system, along with basements.
In order to minimize heat loss in buildings, measures have been developed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. They cansummarize as a list:
- installing an energy-saving profile;
- equipment of premises with radiators with individual control system;
- creating an inextricable contour of thermal insulation;
- selecting a durable thermal insulation system;
- use of specialized entrance doors with heat-insulating profile.
In addition to all of the above, new products are introduced every year, allowing several times to increase the energy efficiency of residential and industrial buildings.
Innovative energy efficiency proposals
Today all sorts of conferences are held in Russia, where young companies and their already internationally recognized competitors present their developments aimed at reducing the heat transfer of buildings. As a result, upon receipt of an energy passport, the building has every chance to receive a higher energy efficiency class.
Some developments go unnoticed, while others are successfully introduced into production. A similar story happened once with energy-saving window profiles, which are now widely used in construction. Sometimes they are built into panels at the factory, which eliminates incorrect installation, and, consequently, heat loss.
Interestingly, in recent years, a proposal has been considered to take into account environmental indicators in the process of assessing the energy efficiency of a building. For example, many companies are replacing lead stabilizers on window profiles with othermade from safer materials.
Not the least role in improving energy efficiency is played by the materials provided in the construction of the building. For example, modern aerated concrete blocks allow you to connect them with the thinnest possible seam. This reduces the risk of heat loss through the connection solution. A special adhesive has also recently been introduced, its use makes any heat loss minimal. In many cases, they are reduced to zero.
Quite often, innovative developments also affect building engineering systems. First of all it concerns ventilation and heating systems. However, in recent years, elevators have also been assessed for energy efficiency, because it has been proven that energy losses when using these devices in some cases reach fifteen percent. Experts advise evaluating elevators not in production, but after installation in the building's shaft. In this case, the information will be as close to reality as possible.
I would also like to note that energy efficiency ideas are very popular. If we talk about the residential sector, then apartments built in compliance with modern technologies are in great consumer demand. In this regard, it can be hoped that integrated technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency will be applied everywhere and will become one of the priority areas of state policy in construction.