All enterprise systems have their own organizational structure, thanks to which there is a management process. Every person who has chosen a managerial career for himself and wants to achieve high performance in it needs to know about management processes.
The process is called:
- Step change of phenomena and states.
- A set of steps to achieve the goal.
In management, a process is a set of actions aimed at adjusting the functions of an enterprise. Now consider this term in more detail.
In management, purpose and process are essential components of a successful company. Any movement that is performed in the company is the result of labor activity. The main parameters can be: objects, means, products of labor, as well as the performer himself.
Main links of the management process:
- Content refers to the action on the persons who make up the management system.
- Organization is the coordination of methodical implementation of the process, which determines the management cycle.The cycle includes goal setting and management functions.
- The implementation procedure is the relationship between process steps and phases.
What else do you need to know about the term under study? The management process in management is divided into steps and belonging to subsystems.
Types of subsystems
Experts highlight the following:
- line guide;
- target - contains the coordination of the quality of products, resources, enterprise development, environmental protection, team development, implementation of production plans and product deliveries;
- functional - covers the preparation of activities for the implementation of specific and special managerial functions;
- providing management - consists of legal and information support, coordinating production processes, supplying the company with technical means.
Each process is characterized by the following properties:
- Dynamism is the interaction of different operations and organs.
- Sustainability is about building and sustaining process pathways.
- Continuity - control is not interrupted while production is in progress.
- Discreteness is the unevenness of the internal properties of the management process.
- Sequence - steps occur in a certain sequence.
- Cyclical - after the impact, the system moves to a new level, and then you need to either set another goal or adjustold.
In order for the management process to be successful, a certain sequence of stages must be observed:
- Goal setting consists of defining, formulating, setting and correcting a goal.
- Working with information involves its accumulation, preservation, search, processing and transmission.
- Analytical work is characterized by monitoring parameters, counting indicators, graphing and analysis.
- Choosing options for action is the search for different versions, designation of choice, correlation of different versions, selection of control methods, coordination approval and decision making.
- Organizational and practical work consists of entrusting the decision to the persons who will execute it, explaining and detailing decisions, assigning tasks, empowering, controlling production.
Forms of influence of system elements on each other
Experts distinguish three forms. Action - an active object affects an inactive one. Impact - active objects have an impact on each other. Interaction - several active objects affect other objects.
Quality Management Systems
The process corresponds to a series of ongoing and completed steps. Against this background, experts highlight another characteristic. Consider it further.
All quality management processes are indispensable:
- A specific goal, which, in turn, is subordinated to the main goal of the enterprise.
- A competent owner who knows how to manage resources and be responsible for the implementation of the process.
- Inputs - objects to be converted by the quality management system process.
- Outputs - conversion results.
- Resources - the means by which the result is obtained.
- A control and error correction system that ensures the normal functioning of the process.
- Process Performance Characterization Systems.
In the process of management, the functions should contain a clear content, an implementation plan and a certain structure. To understand this, you need to understand the terminology. The content is the actions carried out within the aisles of this function. However, what does this mean, based on the context of the topic being studied? In management, the functions of the management process are the composition of actions combined by phases:
- The methodological phases follow logically. First, a goal is set, then the situation is assessed, then the problem is determined, ultimately, based on the previous stages, the manager makes a management decision. At the same time, the goal is the image of the system in the form in which the leader wants to see it. The situation is how the system relates to the goal. A problem is a discrepancy between the goal and the situation. The solution is to find a way to fix the problem.
- Functional - placement and advantageexecution of functions. Consists of stages: planning - organization - motivation - control.
- Economic - identifying needs in terms of the company's economy, assessing the availability, sharing and turnover of resources.
- Social - In the process, the person is paramount.
- Organizational - methodical application of pressure levers: regulation, nomination, instruction, responsibility.
- Informational - work with information consists of searching, collecting, processing and transmitting information.
In management, the above term is the choice of the best alternative. What does it mean? For the solution to be effective, it is required to perform and correlate all the functions of the process in the preparation and implementation phases.
In the management of management processes, there is a classification by type of execution. Consider them:
- Linear - contains a clear sequence of passing through each stage.
- Corrected - this type is characterized by the correction of the previous stages upon completion of the subsequent ones.
- Branched - this type often has many aspects and variations in process designs.
- Situational - with this option, an indicative goal is initially set. The final version of the goal is formed after evaluating the situation, posing the problem and exploring solutions.
- Exploratory - a solution is created based on the goal and assessment of the situation, then it is corrected.
To choose the most suitable type, you should evaluate the quality and degree of information provided.
Strategic Management Process
The above term implies a set of specific steps aimed at achieving the goal. It is also a landmark set by the company in a constantly changing environment. The strategic management process allows you to optimally use the existing potential.
Strategic management is characterized by the following steps:
- Goal setting.
- Search for problems and possible solutions.
- Problem analysis.
- Search for alternatives.
- Analysis of outcomes that may follow certain decisions.
- Choosing the most appropriate alternative.
- Developing a budget.
- Implementation of the solution.
- Assessing the degree of achievement of the result.
- Studying important trends and turmoil that can occur both in the company itself and in its environment.
- Repetition of any steps.
The first step is to set a goal and formulate a mission. This step helps determine:
- tasks from the point of view of the company's products;
- external environment: attitude towards the company;
- the culture of the organization - the atmosphere among employees.
To reach the goal, you need to check for some characteristics. Target should be:
- specific: include the amount of work to be done to get to the goal and the amount of time it will take;
- measurable in terms of quality and/or quantity
- achievable - before setting a goal, the leader must make sure that it can really be implemented;
- agreed - goals should be considered in conjunction;
- flexible - the goal must be dynamic so that it can be adapted to objective or subjective changes;
- acceptable - before setting a goal, the manager must check whether it violates the general moral order that has developed in society, whether it contradicts traditions and laws.
Always remember that setting a goal is the most important decision in planning.
The second stage is the analysis of the external and internal environment. There are three directions that help analyze the external environment:
- changes that have an impact on current company policy;
- factors posing a threat to current company policy;
- factors that expand the horizon of opportunity.
Thanks to the analysis of the external environment, it is possible to predict opportunities, to determine plans in case of any unforeseen circumstances. In order to analyze the external environment, you need to have answers to the questions:
- Where is the facility located at this moment?
- Where should the enterprise be in the future?
- What should managers do to ensure that the enterprisemoved to the state in which it sees the leadership?
To determine the internal strength of the company, you should pay attention to the internal component of the organization and conduct a management survey. To simplify this process, you should check the five main areas: marketing, manufacturing, research and development, financial, resource.
After surveying the marketing area, you can determine:
- market share and ability to compete;
- varieties and features of manufactured products;
- demographic statistics;
- market development;
- customer service;
- effectiveness of advertising and product promotion;
- profit percentage.
Production should be researched to keep the company afloat in the long term. The most important thing in research is to identify strengths and weaknesses. Questions to answer in a manufacturing survey:
- Does the company have the ability to manufacture and market products at a lower price than competitors?
- Can the company attract new materials to make products?
- Is the company installed modern equipment enough?
- Purchases reduce the amount of resources and time to sell a product?
- Does the sale of products depend on the season?
- Can a company supply products to a market that is not available to competing companies?
- Does the quality control work produce results? Is it effective?
- Is it goodthe process of manufacturing the product itself is debugged?
Research and Development (R&D) determines the future success of a company.
Analysis of the financial side is able to find the weaknesses of the company and understand the position of the company relative to competitors.
The need to examine human resources in an enterprise is that often employees are the cause of problems in business.