Natural and man-made emergencies entail certain consequences. Depending on the scale, they can manifest themselves in different spheres of the life of an individual, society and the state in a general sense. It is worth noting that the manifestation of the consequences can occur both immediately after an emergency, and over a relatively long period of time. As a rule, the impact of man-made and natural emergencies leads to the actualization of the following chain: consequences - certain losses - damage - its compensation. In our article we will talk about the types of damage that exist today, as well as compensation for damage and types of liability.
What is loss?
As it turned out, the consequences of emergency situations should be understood as the result of the impact of certain factors. Thus, the consequences of such cases combine all types of changes in the political, socio-economic, scientific, technical and other areas of the life of an individual, society and the state as a whole,that are triggered or to some extent reinforced by past emergencies.
Under losses, it is advisable to consider part of the consequences associated with negative changes in key areas of the state's life. This term also has a narrower meaning. So, under sanitary and irretrievable losses, one can mean victims of emergency cases.
Before considering the types of damage, it is necessary to define a concept so widespread in society. So, damage is nothing more than the result of negative changes due to certain phenomena, events, actions, states of objects, which are expressed in violation of their integral appearance or deterioration of other properties.
These are possible or actual economic and social losses. That is why the modern classification separately considers the types of economic damage, material, social, and so on. A striking example in this case is the deviation of an individual's he alth from the average value, in other words, his illness or even death. In addition, this is a violation of the process of adequate economic work or the loss of any type of property, other cultural, material, natural or historical values. Environmental degradation is also considered a type of damage.
It is interesting to note that in "Introduction to the Science of Security" Kuhlman is under damage (precisely inin the context of technogenic type security) understands the harm to a certain individual, his intangible and material benefits, protected by law, as a result of chemical or physical impact in the process of using technology. So, in this case, the concept of damage includes irretrievable and sanitary losses.
Determination of the consequences of an accident or natural disaster is non-economic, generalized. In turn, the concept of damage characterizes the economic quantitative value, which must be presented in monetary terms. In other words, the damage category is the assessed consequences. It should be added that the assessment of damage consists in determining its scale in monetary or in-kind terms (this is called the economic assessment of damage).
Next, it is advisable to consider the classification of the category. To date, it is customary to distinguish the following types of damage:
- Depending on the problem being solved, it is customary to define the following varieties: actual (estimate) and estimated (forecast).
- According to the place and time of manifestation: indirect, direct, indirect remote (in terms of time).
- By objects of influence (we will consider separately).
Classification by objects of influence
Depending on the object of influence, it is customary to distinguish the following types of damage:
- Medical-biological, caused by individuals, and social, associated with the population as a whole.
- Moral, economic and material damage.The categories presented can refer to both individuals and legal entities.
- Socio-economic, related to socio-economic systems.
- Socio-political, pertaining to the state.
- Ecological, relevant to the natural environment.
Let's consider the category and types of real damage. It should be understood as not only the costs associated with evacuation, emergency recovery work, funds that are allocated from the regional and federal budgets. It refers, as a rule, to causing harm to different objects (organizations, individuals, the environment or the state) in accordance with various components.
For example, the result of a disaster, depending on its magnitude, location, duration, weather conditions, time of release, may be the death of a certain number of people, their illness or injury, followed by partial or complete permanent or temporary disability, as well as death of aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals; loss (partial or complete) of immovable and movable property complexes of third parties (both individuals and legal entities); loss of agricultural or other products and lack of income at the expense incurred, underproduction of marketable products and services due to forced production downtime; moral damage to evacuees or victims, which is associated with a change in living conditions (even short-term), which, as a rule, leads toexperiences, stress or even depression.
The experience of the most developed countries shows that the scale of moral damage at times can be many times greater than compensatory cash payments due to illness. In accordance with all these consequences, the victims, as a rule, present the owner of the object, which served as a source of harmful influence, with a claim regarding compensation for the damage caused, as well as the costs of emergency rescue activities. This is necessary to reduce the consequences (fire fighting, evacuation of people and property, medical assistance to victims in the area of influence of negative factors, and so on).
Natural and value terms
It is important to note that the components of harm can be assessed in physical terms, characteristic of the type of harm under consideration, and a certain proportion of the components - in cost units.
However, in order to compare the consequences of different negative cases, taking into account different components of damage, the development of rational protective measures, in the process of calculating the damage averted due to the measures taken, as well as the effectiveness of security measures in economic terms, all components of the category should be evaluated in the same units, in other words, they should be evaluated in terms of value.
The valuation of the occurred or possible damage should be performed by specialized valuation structures in accordance with agreed methods that ensure the observance of economic interestslegal entities and individuals involved in this process, and the laws of the country. The basis for the evaluation methods are:
- current prices for commercial products and services;
- The practice of personal and property insurance, which has (albeit largely subjective) an extensive base for evaluation, multifaceted and multifaceted statistics.
So, we have fully considered the category of damage, its varieties and features. It was found out that among the types of compensation for damage, the cost plays a special role. In conclusion, it should be noted that the consequences of emergency cases are a special chain of successive events interconnected. The number of links in it can be large. It is advisable to include destruction, radioactive contamination, damage, chemical contamination, adverse effects of harmful and damaging factors on objects of the national economy and nature (land, society, flora and fauna, structures, equipment, buildings, commercial products, semi-finished products, raw materials) as direct damage., livestock, crops, and so on), in other words, everything that is in the area of interest (that is, conscious needs) of the individual and society as a whole. The impact of the same consequences on the functioning and condition of other objects of the national economy and nature that have not been directly affected by damaging factors is usually referred to as indirect damage.