The economic development of Russia is inextricably linked with the agro-industrial complex, which is based on agriculture. The food supply of the population through crop rotation on the basis of national land resources has a well-founded ecological, technological and energy basis, which has been formed over the centuries. Therefore, today the agricultural sector is one of the most promising areas of the national economy, which also does not stand still and develops, increasing the attractiveness of rural areas. Of course, there are problems in this sector as well.
The concept of the agricultural sector
Agrarian society is defined as the stage in the development of human activity associated with agriculture. The transition from gathering and hunting to cattle breeding and farming marked the formationproducing economy, which in our time directly affects the state of the economy. In fact, a properly organized agrarian sector of the country is a source of food for citizens and raw materials for industry. At the same time, the agrotechnical complex has a wider scope than agriculture and animal husbandry. It also includes farming activities in the broad sense of the word, involving hydrological and forest resources. The success of any type of economic activity in this sector is also associated with organizational and legal relations, the participants of which are the owners of natural objects, tenants, directly farmers and hired workers, as well as the state.
High yields and rational use of land does not guarantee that the agricultural sector will give the appropriate return in the country's economy. How the real productivity in agriculture will affect the economy in a broad sense is determined by the organizational and technological infrastructure of the enterprise that is engaged in this activity. If in the USSR these were mainly collective farms and state farms, today the majority of participants in the agricultural sector are agro-industrial complexes of the economy and large farms. A small share is also made up of private family farms. Moreover, it is worth emphasizing that the functions of such enterprises can differ in a variety of ways - both in terms of the type of industry and the structure of production cycles. For example, a large enterprise can provide a full cycle of growing and processing agriculturalseed crops. But there are also highly specialized enterprises that are not at all connected with work "on the ground", but contribute through the subsequent processing of finished raw materials or products. And this is without taking into account intermediate participants in logistics processes that may be responsible for transportation, loading and unloading activities, maintenance of equipment, etc.
Interaction between the agricultural sector and industry
Agriculture is largely dependent on the industrial sector as the direct user of its products. Today, everyone - from small to large agricultural enterprises - uses equipment in their work: cultivators, tractors, seeders, suspended equipment and other mechanics involved in tillage. And this applies only to communication with the engineering industry, but also modern agriculture is not complete without products of the chemical industry. Speci alty fertilizers that feed crop rotation complexes and chemicals for pest control increase yields and in some cases strengthen the topsoil - of course, when used correctly.
As for feedback, the agricultural sector is a direct source of raw materials for the food, textile, leather and pharmaceutical industries. Various agricultural enterprises supply large producing consumers with milk, meat, flour, wool, leather, fats, spices and other products, which already in industrial conditions are subjected to cleaning, modification orprocessing, after which it is sent to finer production cycles or directly to the market.
Economic role of the agricultural sector
The sphere of agriculture creates conditions in the economic space of the country for the development of other areas of national activity, acting in some way as a locomotive or an indirect factor in promotion. Agricultural employment is also a key source of income for residents of villages and small towns. For example, the agricultural sector of the Russian economy is formed due to the labor of 6 million employed citizens, and in general, about 30 million work on the production of agricultural products at different stages. According to statistics, 3 billion labor hours are worked out every year, which corresponds to 1/5 of all labor costs.. To understand the significance of these figures, it is worth noting that no other industry has such a high potential for people's labor activity. The resource intensity of agriculture as a consumer also plays its role. This applies not only to technical means and materials, but also to energy resources, waste from other industries, products from the construction sector, etc.
Features of the agricultural sector as a factor in economic activity
The agro-technical agricultural complex takes the place of a key factor in the country's economic development for a reason. Moreover, the specifics of this industry do not always have positive characteristics in terms of its attractiveness for business and investment. Actually, one ofThe main factors in the demand for the agricultural sector is the need to ensure food security, in which any state is interested. In this context, the features of the agricultural sector can also be expressed through the availability for development of this type of production activity, the main resource of which is land. If we talk about negative factors, then they will include seasonality, the influence of soil and biological properties and natural and climatic conditions, which inevitably make their own adjustments to the production process.
A distinctive feature of agricultural production is its long cycle. Depending on the direction, farmers receive finished products in a few months or a year - and the intensity of production does not fundamentally depend on the invested resources. A properly selected tillage system, applied fertilizers and high quality seeds, for example, will determine only the volume of the crop and its characteristics.
The current state of the agricultural sector in Russia
The domestic agrarian complex clearly demonstrates the conjugation of several interrelated industries, which causes both pluses and minuses for the country's economic development. Today, the key sectors of agriculture in the Russian Federation are crop production and animal husbandry. Their shares in the economic turnover are approximately the same figures at the level of 2400-2600 billion rubles. The leading regions in terms of production include the Krasnodar Territory, the Voronezh and Rostov Regions, the Stavropol Territory, etc.positive dynamics in the development of the sector - in particular, the volume of products manufactured over the past 10 years has increased more than 3 times.
Agricultural sector of the Russian Federation in the international market
Russia still retains its export potential, steadily entering the top five grain-supplier countries. More than 600,000 tons of seeds of leguminous and grain crops are released to the market annually, which allows us to rely not only on maintaining our current positions in the global agricultural market, but also expanding our representation through the countries of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Of course, the agricultural sector is also the share of imports of goods, which in Russia exceeds the share of exports. Despite the fact that the volume of agricultural products and raw materials in the total export turnover is small, the dynamics in terms of the ratio of exports and imports has a positive trend. The increase in trade turnover in the agrarian complex just indicates that the sphere is developing quite actively, demonstrating the ability to compete in the world market.
State policy in the agricultural sector
The noted successes of the industry would hardly have been possible without the active participation of the state in maintaining the main directions of development of the agrarian complex. First of all, this concerns financial support, which is expressed in the annual allocation of funds to subsidize small enterprises in agriculture. In parallel with the creation of favorable conditions for small businesses, programs are being developed for targeted investment support for large enterprises andscientific projects implemented through the modernization and implementation of innovative technological solutions. Since the features of the agrarian sector of the economy are also associated with the environmental nuances of nature management, the participation of the state in this area is also manifested in the protective function. This part is expressed in the provision of legal norms for land use, the development and improvement of the rules for handling natural resources.
Modernization of the agricultural sector of the Russian Federation
Sustainable development of agriculture is impossible without the constant improvement of applied technologies, which should occur naturally. Modernization aims to increase the efficiency of crop rotation through the use of new, more productive tools. On the other hand, many experts, in principle, associate the development of the agricultural sector with the concept of minimizing the technical and instrumental base. Moreover, its reduction does not mean a decrease in productivity. We are talking about the use of multifunctional and more advanced technological solutions that, on the principles of optimization, will allow, with a smaller arsenal, to provide the same effect of processing the fertile layer, in particular.
Problems of the agricultural sector of the Russian Federation
Despite the recorded positive trends in the agricultural sector, there are also negative factors that do not allow the development of the agro-technical complex. These include the following:
- Still poor quality of life in rural areas.
- Unsatisfactorylogistics infrastructure level.
- General technological backwardness. The modern agricultural sector of the economy cannot compete without new functional and ergonomic devices and devices, the lack of which is observed in most of the peasant farm enterprises.
- Shortage of highly qualified personnel.
Organizational and economic factors of development
To develop modern mechanisms for the development of agriculture, new principles of modeling the organizational and economic system of agricultural production are applied. According to this concept, the development of the agricultural sector of the economy will depend on 4 interrelated blocks:
- A verified strategic policy of the state in the agricultural sector.
- On-farm economic mechanisms of agricultural producers.
- Introduction of new management models that take into account legal, social, cultural and environmental aspects.
- Research and innovation support.
The imposition of sanctions and the restriction of Russian food complexes on the world market could not but change the tactics of the development of domestic agriculture. Today, the development of the agrarian sector of the Russian Federation focuses on several reference points, including a comprehensive improvement of the infrastructure of the local market, increasing the attractiveness of the social sphere in the countryside, as well as training new specialists for agriculture. Among the key tasks thatare acute for agrarians, the modernization of terminal and logistics complexes also stands out. As expected, their mass introduction will optimize the processes of transportation, storage and even primary processing of raw materials with minimal time and financial costs.
Regardless of the strategy by which the state and the agro-industrial complex will solve urgent problems in agriculture, it will remain fundamentally important to substantiate the technical and economic model of further development. Only on the basis of scientific research and research it is possible to determine the main indices, according to which the agricultural sector of Russia, and with it other sectors of the national economy, can develop stably and successfully. Also, do not forget about legal regulation, which also plays an important stimulating role in relation to the atmosphere in a particular business environment. At the same time, at the level of each region, the indices of assessments of different development proposals may change, since local features of agricultural activities will also be taken into account.