The concept of management means a system of management activities that contributes to the successful functioning of a variety of socially significant organizations that ensure the life of society. These are commercial and non-commercial business, science and politics, education, etc.
Specific management methods (or management technology) depend on various factors. This is the socio-economic development of a particular area and society, and information support, and the provisions of the current legislation, etc.
What is cultural management? In relation to this area, it is considered in the form of a type of activity and a special field of knowledge about the processes of managing an organization that relate to the production, distribution, and consumption of relevant services in the current conditions of an economy that has embarked on a market economy.
Management in the field of culture is the management of cultural institutions. The same concept includesplanning, preparation, and programming of non-commercial and commercial projects that such organizations are called upon to implement. Management in the field of culture has its own specifics. And this circumstance puts forward the appropriate requirements for the professionalism and competence of a modern manager.
This concept itself is quite complex and ambiguous. Some authors believe that the socio-cultural sphere is represented by a set of those enterprises that produce a product that is directly related to the life of each member of society. This allows you to include a lot of sectors of the economy in it. This includes the automotive industry, the production of household appliances, and so on. But there is another opinion. Some researchers include in this area the totality of those enterprises that perform socio-cultural functions, and their activities are important only for the development of the cultural level of members of society. Such a vision of terminology significantly narrows the list of organizations. Indeed, in this case, this includes only museums, clubs, libraries, theaters and some other institutions of this type.
Let's consider management in the field of culture and art in relation to only those organizations that produce goods and services that satisfy the socio-cultural needs of a person. Such activities are carried out by enterprises that are part of various departments. Their affiliation may be state or municipal. There are private organizations working in the field of culture and art, andalso public. All of them can have different forms of ownership or be organized by individuals.
This term refers to the management exercised in the field of culture. Art management in most of its areas has much in common with traditional service management. This particular product, whether produced by a cultural institution or a commercial organization, cannot be tasted, demonstrated, evaluated and seen before receiving it. After all, services are most of all associated with such phenomena of consciousness as understanding, perception, experience, thinking, etc. And most of them are not subject to storage. The production of services in the sphere of culture, as a rule, coincides in time with their consumption. An example of this is watching a movie or a play, listening to a concert, and so on. In addition, unlike those things that are products of material production and are destroyed in the process of their consumption (vegetables are eaten, shoes wear out, etc.), cultural values are able to gradually increase their significance. It will increase as more people read the book, see the painting, hear the concert, etc.
The most important features of management in the field of culture are that the financing of this area is the result, as a rule, of attracting money from sponsors, charitable organizations, government agencies distributing budgetary funds, etc., and not at all commercial activities. Even in the notorious show business, the income received from the sale of tickets is notexceed 15% of the tour budget. All other funds are allocated by sponsors. And the tours themselves are most often organized to promote a new album or disc.
The specificity of management in the field of culture is that it is based on the organization of art. This may be a philharmonic society or a theater, a production center, etc. In this case, management is carried out in the form of a combination of means, methods and principles that allow organizing entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of art. The effectiveness of the work of a cultural institution will depend on a properly selected management model. An important role in this is called upon to play the professional training and personality of the manager.
It is worth noting that each of the individual areas of the art business has its own management methods and criteria for its effectiveness. The management of cultural institutions is no exception. It has its own indicators of the effectiveness of management models.
Features of management in the field of culture are determined by the solution of specific tasks. Among them:
- propaganda among the population of professional art;
- development of genres;
- creating conditions that provide opportunities for professional and creative growth of performers.
Organizational-administrative management area
What is management in the field of culture and art? First of all, it is necessary to consider its organizationaladministrative control mechanism. It is expressed in a system that distributes powers (rights and duties). It is fixed in the charters, job descriptions and regulations of a particular institution.
Cultural management is sometimes understood as a management apparatus. After all, it is they who put the organizational and administrative mechanism into action. The most important document that regulates the activities of a cultural institution is the charter. It contains a description of the main areas of work of the organization, its governing bodies, reporting, funding sources, etc.
The job descriptions that are being drawn up describe the requirements that a particular employee must meet. This document may be updated and revised as necessary. When concluding employment contracts, the job description is considered in two aspects. First of all, as a separate independent document. This takes place when the conditions of indefinite employment are fulfilled. Also, the job description is an annex to the contract or work contract.
Features of management in the field of culture are that the management of such organizations is carried out at 4 levels, each of which regulates the following:
- The relationship that develops between an organization and society. This process takes place based on a system of normative and legislative acts. These are documents that regulate the stages of creation, as well as the functioning and possible liquidation of a particular organization.
- Relations between organizations of the cultural sphere, as well asbetween them and other institutions and enterprises. This process is carried out thanks to the system of contracts.
- The relationship that develops between a cultural institution and a potential audience. This is made possible by the inclusion of marketing and pricing in this process.
- Relations of the institution with those structural units, as well as individual employees and artistic groups that are part of it. They are carried out thanks to the current system of administrative acts and contracts concluded by the administration.
This concept is a cumulative system that establishes interaction between the structural units of a cultural institution. This process is carried out thanks to the adopted management decisions on a variety of personnel, commercial and economic issues. At the same time, in information management in the field of culture, as in all other areas, an appropriate workflow is used. Business papers make it possible to ensure a close relationship between such links in the organization's work as planning, control, accounting and reporting.
Features of management in the field of culture are due to those specific concepts that take place in this phenomenon. Moreover, acquaintance with them allows you to understand the essence, specifics, functions and mechanism of this type of management. These parameters include, first of all, the subjects of management. They are:
- Producer. This is an entrepreneur whooperates in the field of art and culture. The main goal of the producer's work is to create the final product that will be in demand by the audience. Such a person is an organizer-creator, as well as an intermediary between the public and the creator.
- Culture manager. This specialist is a professional manager. He manages the work of the enterprise, production, the career of performers and the author, the process of creating artistic values, as well as their further promotion on the art market. It can be called an organizer-performer.
The similarities between these subjects of art management lie in the fact that both of them manage, make the necessary decisions, and also have legal and financial literacy. In addition, the producer and cultural manager work with people, are responsible for the final result, and must have the appropriate personal qualities, as their professional success will directly depend on this.
But these subjects also have some differences. They are concluded that the producer is responsible for the risks, assumes the obligations given to investors. The manager is only involved in organizing the project.
Art Management Objects
Management of cultural institutions is an independent type of professional activity. The manager, who is its subject, manages the economic work of the organization either in general or in its specific area. Such activity is the object of art management. Management is carried out overa set of interconnected structural units that perform various functions. These are sectors, divisions, departments, etc. They are also objects of art management. Their management is carried out with the aim of solving the tasks that are set before the organization as efficiently as possible.
The sphere of culture has its own resources of influence. They are personnel with a great potential for creative energy. Moreover, it is aimed at collective creation and active transformation of the socio-cultural environment of society.
The personnel management mechanism in the field of culture is personnel-oriented. It is a system for revitalizing activities, as well as searching for new directions that improve the quality of the final product.
Modern technologies used in the personnel management mechanism in the field of culture allow creating a community of interests of the team. Without this, people management will be ineffective.
Today, in the personnel policy of any organization, three types of theories are considered. Their ideas are applied in personnel management. Among these theories are:
- human relations;
- human resources.
Let's take a closer look at them.
- Classical theories most actively began to take root in the period from 1880 to 1930. Their authors were A. Fayol, F. Taylor and G. Ford, M. Weber and some other scientists. Classical theories pointed out that the main taskmanagement, which allows you to make it as effective as possible, consists in a clear delineation of the job responsibilities of the manager and his subordinates, as well as in conveying specific ideas from top managers to direct executors. Each person in this case was perceived as a separate element of this system. According to the ideas of classical theories, the work of most workers does not bring satisfaction. That is why they must be under the strict control of the leader.
- Theories about human relations. They have been used in management since the late 1930s. The authors of such concepts were E. Mayo, R. Blake, R. Pikart. For the first time, it was recognized that all people strive to be meaningful and useful. Each person feels the desire to integrate in a common cause and be recognized as a person. It is these needs, and not the level of wages, that motivate the individual to work. When adopting such a concept, management should focus on relieving tension, on small groups, affirming the principles of collectivism and eliminating conflicts. The main task of the leader in this case is to contribute to creating a sense in people of their need and usefulness. It is important for the manager to inform subordinates, take into account the proposals put forward by them that will allow them to achieve the goals of the organization faster, and also provide workers with some independence, encouraging their self-control.
- Theories about human resources. The authors of these concepts are F. Gehriberg, A. Maslow, D. McGregor. A similar vision of the personnel policy of management begantake shape since the 1960s of the 20th century. The authors of these theories proceeded from the idea that work gives satisfaction to the majority of workers. That is why people are capable of independence, personal self-control, creativity, and express the desire to make a personal contribution to achieving the goals set for the organization. The main task of management in this case is the more rational use of the human resources at its disposal. In this regard, a top-level manager has a need to create such an environment in the team that would allow the abilities of each employee to be maximally manifested. All members of the team must be involved in solving critical problems and have independence and self-control.
Starting in the late 1990s, human resource management began to take on an entrepreneurial and innovative focus. Collaborative thinking and a solidary style became the main thing. There was such a thing as "enterprising person". It has become the main characteristic of a member of the collective.
When teaching management in the field of culture, all these theories must be carefully considered, subsequently applying in practice the one that will solve the problem facing the team. It should also be taken into account that the activities of cultural personnel are aimed at creating a creative artistic product. Such areas as management and marketing in the field of culture pay special attention to personnel. On the one hand, actors and musicians are people who create artistic values, and on the other hand, inas employees participate in the implementation of these specific services (tour guides, librarians, etc.). The level of customer satisfaction depends on the skill of the former and the professionalism of the latter. In this regard, the personnel of institutions of the socio-cultural sphere are subject to such requirements as possessing creativity, high qualifications, competence, goodwill, politeness, initiative, etc.
Problems of management in the field of culture lie in the mission of most of these organizations and in the specifics of their activities. Despite the fact that such institutions have different departmental affiliation and status, they are mostly non-profit. Their main goal is not to make a profit, but to achieve such spiritual goals as enlightenment, education, creative development, upbringing, etc. For example, the library's mission is not only to create a unique information resource, but also to form a communicative and creative platform in the region.
In this regard, the work of art managers is directly dependent on the direction of the institution and on financial support from the state. The main task of the manager in this case is the competent use and development of available resources, which will allow to realize the goals of cultural activities and ensure the mission of the institution. At the same time, the accompanying (secondary) goal of the manager may be to obtain material profit. You can solve this problem in different ways.
How to achieve effective management in the field of culture? How to apply management tools competently? To do this, the head of an art institution needs to take into account the sphere of culture, the types of activities of the organization and the characteristics of management. In the process of work, be sure to consider:
- The key mission of art.
- The focus of the industry is in this sector of cultural activities.
- The specifics of a certain market segment (education, leisure, etc.), as well as the target audience (youth, children, tourists).
If we briefly consider the features of management in the field of culture, we can talk about its main mission, which is to create economic and organizational conditions conducive to the self-development of cultural life. And no less than these limits and no more than them. This is the main specificity of art management.
It is not surprising that today the state considers the sphere of culture not only as the creator and custodian of artistic values. It is an important sector of the economy for the budget. It provides employment for the population, gives an increase in revenue to the treasury of finance in the form of taxes from its activities, and also develops such highly profitable areas as the production of video and audio products, industrial design, photography, etc. This is the economic mechanism of this sphere. To maximize its use, culture has recently become increasingly linked to foreign economic, structural, social and industrial policies.
Featuresmarketing in the art industry
Today, the use of technologies in this area is the key to the successful operation of the socio-cultural sphere. They provide a strong market position for both commercial and non-profit organizations.
The concept of marketing in the management of the cultural sector and its services is also the promotion of the final product. But due to the fact that the service has differences from the goods, this direction has its own characteristics. They are:
- In the way of providing services. Today, this direction is developing using interactive technologies. So, this type of service is quite popular in modern museums.
- As the final product. To solve this problem, marketers of the institution of the socio-cultural sphere use various tools. An example of this is the use of innovations (a night in a museum, staging a performance not on stage, but in a historically significant place, etc.). Such a decision makes the cultural service original and allows it to attract the attention of more consumers.
- Improve productivity. Such a move involves technical equipment that facilitates the provision of services. This also leads to an increase in the professionalism of the staff.
- Adaptation of marketing tools for cultural services. This direction considers the use of methods of differentiated prices (based on the age of the consumer, the time of visiting the institution, etc.), stimulationdemand when it falls, for example, during the tourist off-season, as well as the introduction of related or additional services (photography at the exhibition, etc.).
This concept denotes a specific area of activity. Sports management is understood as one of the types of industry management. It includes the theory and practice of effective management of organizations working in the field of physical education.
Management objects in the field of physical culture are various organizations that carry out their activities in this direction. These are sports schools, clubs, stadiums, federations, sports and he alth centers, etc. The product of their activities is organized forms of physical education, training, matches, competitions, etc.
The subject of sports management is those management decisions that are formed during the interactions of the subject, as well as the object of management. It can be carried out both within such organizations and when distributing the services offered to the consumer.
The essence of management in the sports field lies in the purposeful regular impact of the subject on the object. The goal of such management is to achieve the new qualitative state planned by it.
Certain elements of sports management are performed to some extent by all employees in this area. For example, a coach. He enrolls in the sports section, keeps records, and also analyzes and summarizes the results of work.
In the modern world, the practice of special events is widely used. It is used not only in cultural life, but also in business activity, the political sphere and social communications. In the field of art, such events are understood as concerts and performances, exhibitions and holidays. Each of them performs various social functions, the list of which starts from artistic and aesthetic and ends with communicative and economic ones.
Management of special cultural events is project management. The organization of the event begins with the identification of goals to be achieved by the upcoming event, and ends with a summing up of the work done. Based on the tasks set for the event, the manager builds the dramaturgy, logistics, as well as the scenography of the event. After that, if necessary, contracts are concluded with contractors and all social, financial, technical, economic and organizational issues that are not only directly, but also indirectly related to the upcoming event are considered.
Retraining of personnel
For whom is knowledge of modern areas of management in the field of culture and art relevant? Retraining of specialists is relevant for:
- Government employees working in departments of cultural administration.
- Heads and specialists of cultural and art institutions.
- Last year students of colleges and universities who want to get a second speci alty.
- Teaching staff of colleges anduniversities that conduct classes in disciplines in the direction of "Socio-cultural activity".
Retraining in management in the field of culture and art is carried out on the basis of state higher educational institutions. Any professional who has:
- primary (secondary) vocational education;
- higher education.
Graduate students from secondary and higher professional institutions are also accepted.
Training period - 3 months. Professional retraining in management in the field of culture is 252 academic hours, during which the issues of the history of this direction are considered, as well as topical topics for organizing events in the field of leisure, tourism and creativity. It is also planned to conduct an internship at the student's place of work. Successful completion of the program ends with the issuance of a diploma of professional retraining.
There are many tutorials that introduce their readers to cultural management. One of them is the book "Management in the sphere of culture". It was written by a team of authors and published under the general editorship of G.P. Tulchinsky and I.M. Bolotnikova.
The textbook "Management in the field of culture" consistently introduces the reader to the concepts and content of the field of creating art products. It also examines the role of the state in managing this area, the existing sources of funding for cultural organizations,methods for developing and implementing event events, systems of work with personnel, as well as questions of charity, sponsorship, patronage and activities of foundations.