Many of our compatriots love grapes. Even the most captious connoisseur will not refuse juicy and sweet berries with sourness. It is not surprising that this crop is actively grown in many gardens. Of course, it causes a lot of trouble - most varieties have to be removed and covered for the winter. However, this is not the only subtlety to keep in mind when growing grapes. It is equally important to know how the grapes are fertilized. After all, the plant needs a whole complex of microelements - if there is a shortage of something, it is impossible to count on a rich harvest.
What substances do grapes need?
Of course, first of all, like any plant, grapes require a large amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Without them, the bush simply will not be able to successfully develop, grow and bear fruit.
Nitrogen is needed to build green mass - from shoots to leaves. And the efficiency of the photosynthesis process, which directly affects the yield, depends on the amount of greenery. That is why nitrogen fertilizers are applied at the end of spring, when the growing season of grapes begins. During the summer, nitrogenno longer needed, as the leaves practically do not grow. But in August and subsequent months, nitrogen-containing fertilizers, on the contrary, can be harmful to grapes. Due to the rapid growth of greenery, the maturation of wood is deteriorating.
Root development depends on phosphorus. Therefore, it is especially important to apply it under young plants. After all, the amount of moisture and nutrients that the plant will receive depends on how powerful and branched the root system will be. So you need to make sure that phosphorus, albeit not in large quantities, is always contained in the soil - the roots develop as the bush grows, providing it with everything necessary. But still, if you are wondering how to fertilize grape seedlings immediately after planting in the ground, then first of all you need to focus on phosphate fertilizers.
Potassium affects the number of ovaries and their size. Therefore, potash fertilizers must be applied shortly before the ovary appears. This increases the number of bunches of grapes, their size.
However, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen are not the only trace elements that grapes need for successful development. The plant also needs copper. Thanks to it, the growth rate of shoots increases, and resistance to drought and frost increases significantly. If the soil contains a sufficient amount of boron, then the taste of ripe berries increases - their sugar content increases. Yes, and they ripen much faster. Finally, the presence of zinc increases the yield of grapes. Therefore, regularly applying fertilizers containing this trace element is also very important. Now youDo you know what fertilizes grapes? You can proceed to the next step.
We use mineral fertilizers
Of course, the easiest way to restore the balance of minerals and trace elements in the soil is with the help of special fertilizers - complex or one-two-component.
If we talk about one- and two-component fertilizers, then first of all it is worth mentioning nitrophoska, ammophos, potassium s alt, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate. In order to influence the composition of the soil in a complex way, experienced growers use the following compositions: Novofert, Aquarin, Kemira and Mortar. The combination of these fertilizers allows you to achieve excellent results.
However, be careful here. An excess of trace elements can be deposited in fruits, which will worsen their taste and even make them dangerous. And, of course, it is very important to observe the seasonality of the application - we will talk about this later.
No organic matter anywhere
Although mineral fertilizers can restore the supply of trace elements consumed by grapes, only their use will lead to disease and reduced yields. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers is also necessary. They partially replace mineral ones and at the same time improve the structure of the soil.
Are you interested in what is the best way to fertilize grapes in spring? For example, if you add ordinary manure - horse or cow - the water permeability and aeration of the soil are significantly improved. This means that the root system will develop moreactively. In addition, thanks to the introduction of manure, microorganisms develop in the ground, which process it into fertilizers that are actively consumed by the grape bush. It is important that this releases a number of substances useful for the plant: potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and others.
However, it is not necessary to limit yourself to manure. Even better if you can use compost. this tool can be easily prepared by any gardener. To get it, almost any organic matter is suitable: tops, food waste, mowed grass and last year's leaves, animal and bird manure, chopped branches. It is enough to mix it all in one pile and leave it for a year - usually this time is enough for the garbage to turn into valuable fertilizer.
If possible, you should also use bird droppings - an extremely valuable fertilizer. It contains many important trace elements, and they are absorbed more easily than from mineral fertilizers. First, the litter must be diluted with water - the optimal proportion is 1: 4. After that, the solution is left for ten days. After that, the fertilizer is re-diluted - now in a ratio of 1:10, and grape bushes are watered with it. About a liter of liquid should be poured onto one plant.
A good substitute for potassium chloride can be ordinary wood ash. It also provides grapes with plenty of phosphorus and potassium. At the same time, it does not contain chlorine, which, if overdosed, can poison the plant.
It is important to know not only how to fertilize grapes in spring forincrease the yield, but also how to do it correctly. Otherwise, the effectiveness of feeding is sharply reduced. So, what do grapes fertilize and how?
When using soluble fertilizers (organic or mineral), everything is quite simple - they must be diluted in the amount of water indicated in the instructions, and then watered in doses also recommended by the manufacturer. With this approach, plants receive top dressing very quickly, since the nutrients are absorbed by the grapes along with moisture.
But if you use granules or organic fertilizers like compost or special granules, the effect will not appear as quickly, but it will be longer. But here you need to know how to feed properly. Typically, experts recommend digging a groove around the base of the vine about 50 centimeters in diameter and up to 40 centimeters deep. It is here that fertilizer is placed, after which it is covered with earth from above.
With this technique, the branched root system receives fertilizers more evenly, they are not blown away by the wind, and after each watering or rain, the plant has the opportunity to absorb useful substances.
The snow is melting in the country, and many grape lovers are wondering how to fertilize the grapes in the spring after opening.
In general, the first feeding should be done when the temperature rises to +16 degrees during the day, and does not fall below zero at night. If you fertilize earlier, then there is a risk that the night cooling will destroy the first kidneys andleaves.
For one plant, a solution is prepared: 10 grams of ammonium nitrate, 20 grams of superphosphate and 5 grams of potassium s alt. All this is diluted in 10 liters of water, which are poured under the plant. Thanks to this, the bush will be able to quickly recover after wintering, the rate of leaf development and their size will increase. You can also use organic food - the best choice is bird droppings diluted in water, as described above.
The second fertilization session should increase the green mass and at the same time stimulate the flowering process. Therefore, the composition should be as balanced as possible. Suitable nitrophos - 60 grams per 10 liters of water. You can also add 5 grams of boric acid here.
If you prefer organic fertilizer, then you should prepare a solution of cow dung. Two kilograms of fresh manure is dissolved in 5 liters of water. After a week, water is added - the total volume should be about 12 liters. This is enough to feed one bush well.
The third application of fertilizer is aimed at increasing the ovary and, as a result, the yield. Produced immediately after flowering. What fertilize grapes? Here you will need not only nitrogen, but also potassium. Therefore, in 10 liters of water, you need to dilute 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and 10 grams of potassium magnesia. Surely after such top dressing you will get a rich harvest.
Feeding just before harvest
Want to improve the taste of ripe berries? Thenfertilize two weeks before harvest. Nitrogen is no longer needed here, but potassium and phosphorus will not interfere. Litter is not recommended because of the nitrogen content. Suitable 20 grams of potash fertilizer (preferably without chlorine!) And 20 grams of superphosphate. They dissolve in 10 liters of water, after which they are watered.
The last time of the year, fertilizers are applied in the fall to prepare the plant for winter and easily endure it. From organic fertilizers, bird droppings, rotted manure or ash are suitable. About bird droppings mentioned above. 300 grams of ash are diluted in 10 liters of water. This waters one bush. Manure is applied dry at the rate of 2 kilograms per bush.
If you choose mineral fertilizers, then 20 grams of granular superphosphate, 10 grams of potassium s alt, 2 grams of manganese sulfate and zinc sulfate, as well as one gram of potassium iodine and boric acid will do.
However, this is necessary for weakened and depleted soils. If you have been growing grapes on good black soil for only a few years, then you can refuse to fertilize before wintering.
Use foliar top dressing
Usually summer residents, wondering how to fertilize grapes in the spring after winter, have in mind only root fertilizers. But there is another way - foliar top dressing. You should definitely know about it.
Nutrients are absorbed not only through the roots, but also through the leaves, if they are dissolved in water. Green sludge is perfect for this.and ash dissolved in water. You can also use complex mineral fertilizers.
Spray should be after the appearance of the first leaves, when the grapes fade and when pouring berries. Works are carried out in calm weather, preferably in the morning or in the evening. If the wind blows, even relatively weak, the fertilizer will simply be blown off the leaves, which will significantly reduce the effectiveness of top dressing. And in direct sunlight, the leaves will get burned - the drops of water left on their surface will act like a magnifying glass.
Some experts also recommend adding a little sugar to the solution - about 3 tablespoons per bucket. They claim that this makes it easier for plants to absorb valuable micronutrients.
Now you know exactly how to fertilize grapes. And thanks to the above information, you can easily select exactly those fertilizers that, in your opinion, are the most suitable for the garden. And you will definitely always harvest a rich harvest of juicy berries.