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Personnel training in the organization: ways, methods and features
Personnel training in the organization: ways, methods and features
Anonim

Cadres decide everything. How old is this phrase, but it still does not lose its relevance. And it's unlikely that it will ever happen. But as a result of this approach, the question arises of how to train personnel in the organization. What to bet on? What are the nuances to consider?

General information

Personnel training is an organized, purposeful, systematic and systematic process of mastering knowledge, skills, abilities and ways of communication using information materials under the guidance of specialists, mentors, teachers and management. The importance of lifelong learning is emphasized by the following factors:

  1. New equipment and technologies are being introduced, modern goods are being produced, communication opportunities are growing.
  2. It is more attractive, cost-effective and efficient for an enterprise to increase the value of existing employees through training than to attract new employees.
  3. Rapid and continuous changes in computer science and technology require ongoing staff training.
  4. The world is gradually moving to the sidehighly competitive market. And those countries that have decided to rely on the continuous education of the population are leading in it.

Why is it necessary?

Here's why you need to train staff in the organization from the employer's point of view:

  1. Innovation.
  2. Management organization.
  3. Acquiring the ability to identify, analyze and solve problems.
  4. Employee integration.
  5. Adapting to changing conditions.
  6. Formation of flexible working hours.

Training and development of staff is good for employees:

  1. Allows you to maintain and improve professional qualifications.
  2. Promotes the acquisition of the necessary knowledge outside the field of their activity.
  3. Develops abilities in planning and organizing workflow.
  4. Helps to gain professional knowledge about consumers and suppliers of products, as well as other factors that affect the work of the company.

How necessary?

personnel training methods

There are several approaches to find out how much training is needed. But before that, about planning. It is necessary to provide for the availability of labor resources, ensure the recruitment of specialists, as well as the procedure for their work, so that they can both fulfill the functional duties assigned to them and improve their skills. How necessary is all this? And it already depends on the situation in the organization. The personnel training system can take on the following forms:

  1. Professional development.Provides training, within the framework of which knowledge, abilities, skills, ways of communication are improved. Used in cases where the requirements for the profession are growing, or a person is preparing for a promotion.
  2. Personnel training. This means organized and systematic training and graduation of personnel for all the necessary areas of activity, where a combination of special knowledge, skills, and abilities is needed.
  3. Retraining of personnel. In this case, personnel training is provided, during which the goal is to master new knowledge, skills, abilities and everything else that is necessary in order to master a new profession or the requirements that have changed for it.

About concepts and subjects

staff training in the organization

Foreign and domestic experience allowed us to develop three fundamental approaches to staff training. Namely:

  1. Specialized learning concept. Focused on today or the near future, corresponds to a specific place of work. This training is quite effective and does not take much time, contributes to the preservation of the workplace and strengthening the self-esteem of a person at the same time.
  2. The concept of multidisciplinary learning. It is effective from an economic point of view, as it helps to increase the employee's intra-production mobility. But this training at the same time carries a certain amount of risk, since the employee opens up more opportunities, and he is less tied to a certainworkplace.
  3. Person-centered learning concept. It relies on the development of human qualities that are inherent in nature or acquired during practical activities. Such training is considered when it comes to people with talent in research, leadership, pedagogy, and so on.

What is the object in all these cases? This is:

  1. Knowledge - obtaining a theoretical, practical and methodological base that an employee needs to perform existing tasks in the workplace.
  2. Skills are the ability to successfully perform duties that are assigned to a person within the framework of existing authority.
  3. Skills are the ability to apply acquired knowledge in practice. Assume conscious self-control.
  4. Form of life, ways of behavior / communication on the part of the individual - a set of actions of an individual that were committed in the process of interaction with the outside world.

About Methods

staff training

They influence where the learning process will take place - in the workplace or out of it. When is the first option available? The methods of training personnel in the workplace allow the educational process to be carried out in a familiar environment. At the same time, the employee uses his usual tools, documentation, materials, equipment - everything that he will deal with after completing the training. At the same time, he is considered as a partially productive worker.Off-the-job training provides for the movement of an employee outside the boundaries of the territory of work. At the same time, as a rule, it is carried out using simplified tools and equipment, which is called training. The worker does not act as an arbitrary unit. It should be noted that this option can be carried out at the premises of the employer, training centers, vocational institutions. Staff training methods are divided into two large groups, each of which is based on where this process is going. Let's look at them in detail.

At the workplace

The table below will help us with this.

Teaching Methods

Implementation features

Production briefing

General information, familiarization with the new working environment, introduction to the speci alty, adaptation

Directed Experience

Systematic training in the workplace, drawing up and implementing an individual plan that sets out all the goals to be pursued

Rotation (change of workplace)

Getting the necessary knowledge and gaining new experience. Thanks to this approach, an idea of ​​the whole versatility of production tasks and activities is formed. Typically used in programs for the younger generation of professionals

Mentoring

Cooperation of two people whenthere is continuous, unbiased feedback. At the same time, the mentor periodically checks the level of work performed by the trainee. This method is effective in cases where something goes wrong. Can be practiced systematically

Engaging workers as assistants to highly qualified employees

Used to familiarize and train with problems of a qualitatively different and higher order of tasks, when a certain share of responsibility is transferred to a person

Preparation in project teams

This case explores collaboration during large and time-limited tasks

Speaking about the training of working personnel, it should be noted that some forms of training are possible only at the workplace. An example would be rotation or mentoring. Whereas theoretical training is usually transferred to vocational schools, special centers and so on.

Training outside the workplace

staff training and development

This option is more intended for obtaining theoretical knowledge. The table below will also help us consider it.

Teaching Methods

Implementation features

Lecturing

Passive teaching method, which is used to present methodological and theoretical knowledge, as well as practical experience

Program training courses

A relatively active learning method that is effective in terms of obtaining theoretical knowledge

Conferences, excursions, seminars, discussions, roundtable discussions, meetings with management

These are active learning methods that are aimed at developing logical thinking and developing ways of behaving in various situations

Training of management personnel on the independent solution of specific problems of industrial practice

Modeling certain problems that need to be fixed by management. Allows you to combine theoretical knowledge and practical skills, provides for the processing of information, promotes constructive-critical thinking and develops a creative approach to the decision-making process

Business games

This approach teaches behavior in various situations, for example - during negotiations. At the same time, it is desirable that role holders develop alternative points of view

Training

Is a day-to-day training in which one person instructs another on the basics of operations through intensive training, demonstrations and hands-on activities to improve performance

Self-learning

This is the simplest approach and does not require any instructors or specialpremises, no fixed time. The learner chooses when and how to learn and improve. But this method requires consciousness and a desire to learn new knowledge.

Quality Circle

In this case, the cooperation of young professionals in the development of specific solutions in the management of the organization is expected. This is done by joining working groups (quality circles). All developments are transferred to the management of the organization, which considers the proposals received and makes decisions on them. The group is informed whether it was supported or rejected

Solving production and economic problems with simulation

Building and evaluating processes using the mathematical apparatus at competing enterprises (fictitious or real data), the need to make a decision at a certain stage of activity (production, sales, financing, personnel issues)

Other methods

training and certification of personnel

Professional training of staff may have other options. As an example, you can give:

  1. Experiential or experiential learning. In this case, it is envisaged that the educational process will be promoted through independent work, but in a certain logical order.
  2. Demonstration and practice under expert guidance. In this case, the trainer shows the trainee what and how to do. Then the opportunityrepeat the same is given to the employee himself, but under the guidance of an experienced employee.
  3. Programmed learning. In fact, this is an option when a machine or book "leads" its reader along the path of development and periodically checks the acquired knowledge with the help of questions.
  4. Teaching using a computer. A private version of paragraph 3, but very common. As a rule, the presence of the Internet network is assumed.
  5. Learning by doing. Educational process, which involves the commission of certain actions. For example, participating with others in the development of a group assignment or project, working as part of a (larger) unit.

A staff training program and its implementation is considered effective if the costs associated with it in the future will pay off due to increased labor productivity or other factors that are associated with costs or errors. Increasing the professional level allows you to save your job, opens up opportunities for promotion, positively affects the size of the organization's income, self-esteem of employees, and even contributes to the expansion of the market for the sale of goods.

How to evaluate staff training?

holding a seminar

In short, it is necessary to calculate the costs and compare them with the financial benefits of the work of a trained employee. However, the accuracy and ease of assessment can vary greatly:

  1. The financial benefits of training are much easier to calculate if the conversation is not about the mental, but about the physicallabor.
  2. The cost of the off-site option is easier to calculate than in cases where everything is in production.
  3. The benefits of learning are not limited to simply improving work efficiency. This needs to be considered.
  4. It is fairly easy to estimate the costs of inadequate training. As an example, you can calculate the cost of damaged raw materials, marriage, overtime to correct errors, customer complaints.

There can be considerable difficulty in trying to evaluate these points in financial terms. If this happens for the first time, then it is necessary that the training and certification of personnel be supervised by experienced employees. In case of their absence, the personnel department should carefully monitor everything or, if the enterprise is small and it does not exist, representatives of the highest management level (director, his deputy, accountant). And in addition to paragraph 3, we can say that the main criterion for the effectiveness of training is to increase efficiency.

Peculiarities of training in state bodies

personnel training system

In general, the main topic of the article has already been considered. Now let's talk about the specifics that exist in state bodies. In many cases, personnel management of an organization, training of personnel is regulated by law. This is true, to a greater extent, for workers in the field of education and medicine. So, teachers can get a promotion, then become an honored teacher, and so on. The same can be said abouttraining of medical personnel. It does not last long - days or weeks (depending on the field of work, current qualification level and needs). So, for example, a doctor may be sent to courses in nursing staff management or to become familiar with internal hospital infections. This is all included in staff training. Managing the development of the same hospital is impossible if it smoothly turns into a morgue. Therefore, it is necessary that the staff know what can lead to an improvement in the situation with the sick, and what can worsen. Periodic quartzization with ultraviolet light, overalls, masks and shoe covers - everything matters. The same can be said about many other speci alties. Their future depends on the education of our children, as well as the whole country. Electrical personnel training enables tasks and problems to be solved, as well as wiring in residential and industrial premises in accordance with the requirements and needs put forward. After all, if you ignore the numerous requirements and conditions (including safety), this can result in injury and even death.

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